Monoclonal antibody 10A5 recognizes an antigen unique to the water-insoluble 25/45 membrane fraction of the rat ocular lens
© Whitman et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 13 May 2013
Accepted: 1 October 2013
Published: 2 October 2013
The water-insoluble 25/45 fraction and non-sedimenting membrane fraction (NSMF) are two membrane preparations isolated from the ocular lens. The fractions are postulated to represent distinct subdomains of the lens with unique functions. However, attempts to distinguish between the two fractions by detecting proteins present in one fraction but absent from other have been unsuccessful. In this study, we exploited the ability of the mouse immune system to detect antigenic differences between the 25/45 fraction and NSMF isolated from the lenses of 20-day-old rats. We generated a monoclonal antibody (MAb 10A5) that reacts with a ganglioside-like antigen that is present in the 25/45 fraction but absent from the NSMF. Restriction of the antigen to the 25/45 fraction in 20-day-old animals supports the hypothesis that the 25/45 fraction and NSMF represent different subdomains within the ocular lens.
The lens fiber cell plasma membrane is organized into subdomains of clustered macromolecules that differ in composition from the majority of the bilayer (Raguz et al. 2008). Such domains include adhesive structures (cellular synapses, substrate adhesions, and fiber cell junctions), membrane invaginations (clathrin-coated pits and caveolae), and less well-defined domains such as cholesterol-rich lipid rafts and lectin-glycoprotein lattices (Lajoie et al. 2009). The varied composition of the domains facilitate unique functions. Lens fiber junctions, which contain proteins called connexins, maintain homeostasis within the fiber cells by facilitating the transfer of water, ions, and low molecular weight compounds between adjacent, communicating cells (Fleschner and Cenedella 1991). Caveolae play roles in lipid transport, endocytosis, signal transduction, and cell transformation (Perdue and Yan 2006). Cholesterol crystalline domains are essential for maintaining lens transparency (Borchman et al. 1996; Jacob et al. 1999,2001), most likely by interfering with cataractogenic aggregation of α-crystallin at the membrane surface (Tang et al. 1998).
In a previous study, Fleschner and Cenedella (1993) described the isolation of a non-sedimenting membrane fraction (NSMF) from the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of bovine lens. The NSMF differed in several regards from the water-insoluble sedimenting membrane fraction (SMF): the NSMF contained fewer fiber junction structures, a greater amount of total lipid relative to total membrane protein, and less cholesterol relative to phospholipid than the SMF. In a follow-up study, it was shown that the NSMF contained a greater concentration of triacylglycerol than the SMF, and that there was an inverse relationship between membrane cholesterol and triacylglycerol content (Fleschner and Cenedella 1997). It was suggested that triacylglycerol-rich domains might exist as oily pools to allow diffusion of lipophilic molecules, thus providing a transport mechanism across fiber cell plasma membranes with diminished transport activities (May et al. 1986; Fleschner and Cenedella 1993).
More recently, an additional lens membrane preparation that we call the "25/45 fraction" was isolated. Like the SMF, the 25/45 fraction is hypothesized to be distinct from the NSMF. The 25/45 fraction is prepared by homogenizing lenses in aqueous buffer without chaotropic agents, sedimenting the water-insoluble fraction, and then subjecting the water-insoluble fraction to ultracentrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose density gradient (Fleschner 1998). The 25/45 fraction is so-called because it is isolated from the interface between 25% and 45% sucrose. The 25/45 fraction contains the full complement of extrinsic (8 M urea-soluble) proteins found in the lens "native" plasma membrane in vivo (Cenedella and Fleschner 1992). Crystallins account for approximately 90% of the extrinsic protein, with the remainder comprising cytoskeletal and other proteins (Cenedella and Fleschner 1992). A comparison of the cytoskeletal components vimentin, phakinin, and filensin in the NSMF and 25/45 fractions showed that these proteins differed quantitatively but not qualitatively between the two membrane fractions in both bovine and rat lenses (Fleschner 1998, 2002).
Because prior studies did not reveal proteins uniquely associated with the 25/45 fraction or NSMF, we undertook the current investigation to determine whether antigenic differences could be detected using monoclonal antibodies raised separately to the 25/45 fraction and NSMF isolated from 20-day-old rats. Our goal was to reveal additional differences between the two membrane fractions to support the hypothesis that the 25/45 fraction and NSMF represent distinct lens subdomains. Here we describe the production of a monoclonal antibody (MAb 10A5) specific for an antigen that in 20-day-old rats is restricted to the 25/45 fraction. The antigen appears to be biochemically related to the gangliosides.
Screening of hybridoma supernatants by ELISA and immunoblotting
Enzymatic deglycosylation of the 25/45 fraction
Immunoprecipitation of the antigen reactive with MAb 10A5, followed by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis
Proteins in gel slices containing the antigen recognized by MAb 10A5 were provisionally identified by MALDI-ToF/MS. The mass lists compiled for the 1-D versus 2-D gel slices were completely unique, with no proteins identified in common. The sole protein identified with confidence in the 1-D gel slice was structural maintenance of chromosomes 1-like 1 (SMC1, gi 13928946), a protein involved in sister chromatid cohesion during the mitotic cell cycle (Zou 2011). An Excel file containing the peptide summary report for the 1-D gel slice has been provided [see Additional file 1]. The sole protein identified with confidence in gel slices excised from duplicate 2-D gels was anionic trypsin-1 precursor (gi 6981420), which may have been a contaminant contributed by the trypsin preparation used in the MALDI-ToF procedure. Details of the peptide summary report for the 2-D gel slices are presented as an additional Excel file [see Additional file 2].
Protease digestion of the 25/45 fraction from 20-day-old rats
Folch extraction, thin layer chromatography, and dot blot immunoassay
In this study, we demonstrated that the 25/45 membrane fraction differs antigenically from the NSMF isolated from the ocular lenses of 20-day-old rats. We generated a monoclonal antibody, MAb 10A5, specific for a ganglioside-like antigen unique to the 25/45 fraction that was absent from the NSMF in 20-day-old animals. The presence of the antigen in one membrane fraction, but not the other, supports the hypothesis that the 25/45 fraction and NSMF represent distinct subdomains within the ocular lens.
We initially assumed that the antigen recognized by MAb 10A5 is a protein or modified protein based on its electrophoretic mobility through polyacrylamide gels. However, an extensive battery of tests performed on the antigen failed to reveal any evidence of a proteinaceous component. In the first series of tests, the antigen was concentrated by immunoprecipitation from the 25/45 fraction and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Gels containing the antigen were incubated in routine and specialized stains. Neither silver stain (estimated sensitivity, 5–10 ng per protein band) nor colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250 (sensitivity, ~30 ng/band) detected the antigen. The cationic dye Stains-all (Goldberg and Warner 1997), which stains sialoglycoproteins and phosphoproteins blue, proteoglycans purple, and less acidic proteins pink, failed to detect the antigen. Stains-all counterstained with silver nitrate, a combination that enables detection of sub-nanogram quantities of phosphoproteins (Goldberg and Warner 1997), did not stain the antigen. The proteoglycan stain Alcian blue (Wall and Gyi 1988) and the reverse stain imidazole-zinc sulfate (Castellanos-Serra et al. 1999; Hardy et al. 1997), were also ineffective in antigen visualization. In each experiment, a replicate gel was immunoblotted with MAb 10A5 to ensure the presence of the antigen within the 10–15 kD mass range.
Next, the antigen was evaluated as a glycoprotein by subjecting the 25/45 fraction to enzymatic deglycosylation and examining immunoblots probed with MAb 10A5 for changes in antigen mass or intensity of antibody recognition. No changes in the immunoblot pattern were observed after deglycosylation, suggesting that the antigen reactive with MAb 10A5 is not a glycoprotein that contains N- or O-linked carbohydrates. We then attempted to identify the antigen by MALDI-ToF/MS. The antigen was concentrated and separated from other components in the 25/45 fraction by immunoprecipitation, followed by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis. Gel slices were submitted for analysis after ensuring the antigen’s presence by clipping pieces from each end of the slices and probing the pieces with MAb 10A5. The peptide mass lists compiled for the 1-D and 2-D gel slices were completely different from one another with no proteins identified in common, despite irrefutable evidence of the antigen’s presence in all gel slices submitted for analysis. We interpreted the MALDI-ToF/MS results as compelling evidence that the antigen recognized by MAb 10A5 is not a protein. The proteins listed in the MALDI-ToF/MS reports were most likely contaminants, especially given that 90% of these proteins were present in such low quantity that they could not be identified with confidence.
To confirm our hypothesis that the antigen recognized by MAb 10A5 is not a protein, we incubated the 25/45 fraction with trypsin and proteinase K, and found that the protein digestion protocols had no effect on the antigen’s mass or immunoreactivity. Given these results, we considered other, non-protein classes of macromolecules in subsequent attempts to identify the antigen.
During extraction of the 25/45 fraction by the Folch method, the antigen reactive with MAb 10A5 partitioned to the upper phase, which is known to contain both proteins and gangliosides (Folch et al. 1957). Thin layer chromatography and resorcinol staining of the upper phase revealed the presence of a ganglioside-like spot that, when eluted from the TLC plate, proved highly immunoreactive with MAb 10A5. On high performance TLC plates developed with the chloroform/methanol/0.2% aqueous CaCl2 (55:45:10 v/v/v) solvent system that is well-suited for ganglioside separation (Schlosshauer et al. 1988), the immunoreactive spot migrated with the same mobility as the GD1a ganglioside standard. In a subsequent dot blot immunoassay, MAb 10A5 failed to recognize purified bovine GD1a or any of the additional gangliosides in the standard mixture, which included GT1b, GD1b, GM1, and asialo-GM1. Normal rat lenses have been shown to contain GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b, GM3, GD3, GT3, GT1c, GQ1c, and GP1c (Saito and Sugiyama 2000a, b). MAb 10A5 may recognize a lens-associated ganglioside, e.g. GD3 or GT3, whose mobility through TLC plates is similar to that of GD1a.
Because we are aware that proteoglycans can be resistant to proteases (Seldin et al. 1985), we considered the possibility that the antigen reactive with MAb 10A5 might be a proteoglycan that would be unaffected by incubation in trypsin or proteinase K. Therefore, we subjected the proteoglycans chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate to HPTLC in the chloroform/methanol/0.2% aqueous CaCl2 (55:45:10 v/v/v) solvent system and stained the chromatograms with resorcinol. In sharp contrast to the ganglioside-like antigen recognized by MAb 10A5, the proteoglycans failed to migrate from the application origin and stained very poorly with resorcinol. This result demonstrated that the antigen reactive with MAb 10A5 is biochemically distinct from the proteoglycans. The result also was consistent with the failure of Stains-All and Alcian blue to detect the antigen in polyacrylamide gels.
The multi-band pattern yielded by the ganglioside-like antigen in western blots probed with MAb 10A5 is intriguing. There is scant literature that describes how free gangliosides behave in SDS-PAGE gels. A report by Heuser et al. (1974) showed that purified gangliosides migrate behind the dye front when subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. Gangliosides can self-associate and may interact with proteins through nonspecific hydrophobic interactions (Fukunaga et al. 2012; Osborne et al. 1982). We believe that the ganglioside-like antigen recognized by MAb 10A5 migrates to the area of the gel behind the dye front, where it interacts nonspecifically with protein fragments that are present in the same area. We further believe that this interaction explains why we see multiple antibody-reactive bands on Western blots of the 25/45 lens membrane preparation.
Gangliosides play an important role in the formation and stabilization of specific cell membrane lipid domains (Sonnino et al. 2007). Gangliosides are ceramide-derived glycolipids with one or more sialic acid residues attached via glucose to the primary hydroxyl group of the sphingosine backbone. The carbohydrate moiety always contains galactose in addition to glucose and sialic acid, and may also contain N-acetyl galactosamine. The hydrophobic ceramide contains a fatty acid and is inserted into the plasma membrane, with the hydrophilic oligosaccharide headgroups protruding into the extracellular medium (Cavallotti and Cerulli 2008; Sonnino et al. 2007). The amphiphilic character of the ganglioside manifests several physico-chemical properties that contribute to microdomain formation. These include lipid transition temperature, oligosaccharide headgroup geometries that favor ganglioside clustering and packing, the ability of the headgroups to interact with water molecules, and the capacity of the gangliosides to form hydrogen bonds at the lipid-water interface (Sonnino et al. 2007). Headgroup composition greatly influences the formation of positive and negative surface curvatures within the cell membrane. For example, in caveolae, gangliosides are distributed so that those with the highest surface area (i.e., the largest oligosaccharide headgroups) are located on the edges of the invaginations where the surface has the greatest positive curvature, with cholesterol positioned in the inner part (Sonnino et al. 2007). Such an arrangement forms a microdomain of reduced membrane fluidity, where the components necessary to carry out such functions as receptor trafficking and signal transduction are held in close proximity to one another (Raguz et al. 2008; Sonnino et al. 2007).
Alterations in lens ganglioside composition may influence cataract formation. Early studies suggested that human cataractous lenses consist of a simple pattern of GM3 and GM1 (Sarkar and Cenedella 1982; Windeler and Feldman 1970), but later reports revealed a more complicated ganglioside pattern (Swindell et al. 1988; Tao and Lee 1986). In particular, Ogiso (1998) and Ogiso et al. (1990) showed that mature cataractous lenses contain an increased level of a slow-moving ganglioside when compared to immature cataractous lenses removed from individuals in the same age group. The slow-moving ganglioside was found to consist of glucose, galactose, and sialic acid in a molar ratio of 2:1:4, with no N-acetyl galactosamine detected (Ogiso et al. 1990). The composition of the slow-moving ganglioside was similar to GM3 except for the long-chain fatty acid moiety. Analysis by TLC further showed that an increase in gangliosides during cataract maturation was frequently accompanied by the appearance of polysialogangliosides (Ogiso et al. 1990).
We observed age-related changes in the distribution of the ganglioside-like antigen recognized by MAb 10A5. In 20-day-old animals, the antigen was found only in the 25/45 ocular lens fraction, but by age 75 days, the antigen was found in both the 25/45 fraction and NSMF. The redistribution of the ganglioside-like antigen from the major membrane fraction to both the major membrane fraction and the NSMF may be related to the aging-associated remodeling of the lens plasma membrane cytoskeleton (Beebe et al. 2001; De Maria et al. 2009; Lee et al. 2000). Redistribution of the antigen may have functional consequences. Gangliosides have been reported to modulate receptor function in microdomains (McJarrow et al. 2009), an effect that might be shared by the ganglioside-like antigen upon its incorporation into the NSMF. Furthermore, if the ganglioside-like antigen undergoes age-related modifications, it has the potential to contribute to cataractogenesis. Ogiso (1998) suggested that age-related modifications to lens gangliosides alter the cell-to-cell interaction induced by cell surface saccharide chains, resulting in initiation and progression of cataractogenesis. Modified gangliosides caused by age progression may also disrupt plasma membrane ion transport and trans-membrane signaling, further promoting age-dependent cataract formation (Hakomori 1981). Whether the ganglioside-like antigen modulates the function of the NSMF or contributes to cataract formation will require testing in an appropriate animal model of cataract.
Using hybridoma technology, we showed that the 25/45 membrane fraction isolated from the ocular lenses of 20-day-old rats is antigenically distinct from the NSMF. Restriction of the antigen to the 25/45 fraction in 20-day-old animals supports the hypothesis that the 25/45 fraction and NSMF represent different subdomains within the ocular lens. MAb 10A5, a monoclonal antibody specific for this ganglioside-like antigen, will be a useful tool for tracking the antigen in an animal model of ocular aging and cataractogenesis.
Rat lens membrane preparations
All protocols involving animals were approved by the A.T. Still University Institutional Animal Care Committee and were conducted in accordance with the recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The 25/45 fraction and NSMF were isolated from the lenses of 20-day-old and 75-day-old Sprague Dawley rats as previously described (Fleschner 1998). Briefly, a 10% homogenate (wet tissue weight to buffer volume) was prepared by Dounce homogenization of decapsulated lenses in buffer comprising 5 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, and 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol, pH 8.0, containing a protease inhibitor cocktail (P8340) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The homogenate was centrifuged at 20,000 g for 30 min to obtain the water-insoluble sedimenting membrane fraction and water-soluble supernatant fraction (WSF). The sedimenting membrane fraction was further fractionated by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation through 25%, 45% and 50% sucrose at 100,000 g for 120 min. The 25/45 fraction was collected from the interface between 25% and 45% sucrose. The NSMF was isolated by adjusting the density of the water-soluble supernatant to 1.22 g/ml with solid KBr, centrifuging the solution at 100,000 g for 16 h, and removing the floating NSMF from the top of the solution. The NSMF was washed twice, dialyzed to reduce KBr concentration, and then concentrated by centrifugation at 68,000 g for 60 min.
Hybridoma production and screening
Groups of four female BALB/c mice were immunized with the 25/45 fraction or NSMF isolated from 20-day-old rats in three intraperitoneal injections over the course of three months. Each injection contained 100 μg of protein in a total volume of 200 μl. For the first immunization, the antigen was emulsified in 50% Freund’s complete adjuvant (MP Biomedicals, Solon, OH). The second and third intraperitoneal injections were given in 50% Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (MP Biomedicals). Titers of sera obtained by tail bleed 11 days after the third intraperitoneal injection were determined by immunoblotting (Towbin et al. 1979) against the homologous antigen used for immunization. Three days prior to hybridoma production, the mouse from each group that had the highest antibody titer received an intravenous booster immunization containing 50 μg of antigen in 50 μl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4). Splenocytes from the mice were fused to Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells as described by Van Deusen (1983) and selected in HAT medium prepared from Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium supplemented with 15% horse serum (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO).
Beginning 10 days after fusion, undiluted hybridoma culture supernates were screened for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Voller et al. 1976) against microtiter plates coated with 1 μg/well of 25/45 fraction or NSMF from 20-day-old rats. Reactive supernates were detected with 1:2000 alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-mouse immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) (Sigma) and p-nitro phenyl phosphate substrate solution (Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, IL). Supernatants that were reactive with the membrane fraction used for mouse immunization were subsequently tested by ELISA against the heterologous membrane fraction. From this screening protocol, a single monoclonal antibody was identified that reacted with one membrane fraction but not both: MAb 10A5 recognized an antigen unique to the 25/45 fraction that was absent from the NSMF in 20-day-old animals. The hybridoma line secreting MAb 10A5 was cloned three times by limiting dilution (Campbell 1984) and adapted to growth in HybriMax serum- and protein-free medium (Sigma). The MAb was concentrated and the medium was exchanged for PBS by ultrafiltration through Biomax-30 membranes (Millipore, Billerica, MA). MAb 10A5 was identified as an IgG2b antibody using a Mouse Typer™ Isotyping Kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA).
SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of lens membrane fractions
Ocular lens fractions were subjected to SDS-PAGE as described by Laemmli (1970) through 18% or 5-20% polyacrylamide gradient resolving gels, and the proteins were visualized by staining with 0.1% w/v Coomassie Blue R-250 in 40% methanol/10% acetic acid. Alternatively, proteins were electrophoretically transferred from the gels to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes and probed by immunoblotting as described by Towbin et al. (1979). Briefly, membranes were blocked by a 1 h incubation in Tris-buffered saline (TBS; 20 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.5) containing 5% nonfat dry milk (NFDM) before being incubated for 90 min in MAb 10A5 diluted to 1 μg/ml in TBS containing 0.05% Tween 20 (TTBS) and 1% NFDM. The membrane was washed in TTBS and then incubated for 90 min in 1:3000 alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Sigma). After further washes, membranes were developed with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate substrate (NBT/BCIP) (Bio-Rad).
Enzymatic deglycosylation of the 25/45 fraction
The 25/45 fraction from 20-day-old rats was subjected to enzymatic deglycosylation (GlycoPro™ kit, Prozyme, San Leandro, CA) to remove N-linked (asparagine-linked) and simple O-linked (serine/threonine-linked) carbohydrates from glycoproteins. One hundred μg of 25/45 fraction protein in 30 μl of distilled water were mixed with 10 μl of 5X incubation buffer (0.25 M sodium phosphate, pH 7.0) and 2.5 μl of denaturation buffer (2% SDS, 1% 2-mercaptoethanol). The mixture was heated at 100°C for 5 min. After the mixture had cooled to room temperature, 2.5 μl of 15% NP-40 detergent were added, followed by 1 μl each of N-glycanase, sialidase A, and O-glycanase. Incubation with the enzymes was allowed to proceed for 3 h at 37°C, after which aliquots containing 8 μg of the deglycosylated 25/45 fraction protein were resolved by SDS-PAGE through 5-20% gradient gels. Control lanes were loaded with untreated 25/45 fraction protein (8 μg), and with untreated or deglycosylated bovine fetuin (1 μg/lane). The proteins were transferred to PVDF membranes for staining with Coomassie Blue R-250 or immunoblotting with MAb 10A5 as described previously. The membranes were examined to determine whether deglycosylation of the samples caused a shift in molecular weight or a reduction in reactivity with MAb 10A5 compared to untreated controls.
Immunoprecipitation of the antigen reactive with MAb 10A5
Immunoprecipitation was performed as described by Stuart and Chamberlain (2003). An aliquot containing 150 μg of 25/45 fraction protein from 20-day-old rats was adjusted to a final concentration of 1% Triton X-100 (TX100) in a total volume of 150 μl PBS. The solution was sonicated on ice by three 15-sec bursts, incubated for 60 min in a 37°C water bath with occasional vortexing, and centrifuged for 10 min at 10,000 rpm in a minifuge. The supernatant was incubated for 90 min with 150 μl of Protein G Dynabeads (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA) pre-coated with MAb 10A5 (1 μg antibody/μl beads). The beads were washed five times in PBS-0.01% Tween 20, and the immune complexes were eluted into 25 μl of Laemmli denaturing sample buffer (62.5 mM Tris–HCl, pH 6.8, 2% SDS, 5% 2-ME, 20% glycerol, 0.1% bromophenol blue) by incubation for 5 min in a boiling water bath. Eluates containing the immune complexes (12 μl/lane) were subjected to electrophoresis through 18% polyacrylamide gels. The gels were stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 as previously described, or with one of six alternative stains: colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250 (University of Missouri Proteomics Center 2006), Alcian blue (Wall and Gyi 1988), silver nitrate (Terry et al. 2004), imidazole-zinc sulfate (Castellanos-Serra et al. 1999; Hardy et al. 1997), Stains-All (Goldberg and Warner 1997), or a combination of Stains-All and silver nitrate (Goldberg and Warner 1997; Terry et al. 2004). The colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250 staining procedure was used to fix and stain gels in preparation for MALDI-ToF/MS, described below. The gel was washed three times in distilled water, stained overnight at room temperature in 300 ml of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (0.08% w/v in 20% ethanol, 1.6% phosphoric acid, and 8% ammonium sulfate), and then destained by extensive washing in distilled water.
2-Dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis
The antigen reactive with MAb 10A5 was immunoprecipitated from 450 μg of TX100-solubilized 25/45 fraction using 270 μl of MAb 10A5-coated Protein G Dynabeads. Immune complexes were eluted from the beads into 375 μl of isoelectric focusing (IEF) sample buffer (9 M urea, 4% CHAPS, 3 mM tributylphosphine, 0.04% Bio-Lyte 3/10 ampholytes) by incubation for 1 h in a 37°C water bath with occasional vortexing. The eluate was split into three 125-μl portions, each of which was used to rehydrate a 7-cm ReadyStrip™ IPG strip (Bio-Rad), pI 3–10, under active rehydration conditions. The strips were focused in a programmable Protean IEF cell (Bio-Rad), after which they were equilibrated by successive 10-min incubations in buffer I (6 M urea, 0.375 M Tris–HCl, pH 8.8, 2% SDS, 20% glycerol, 2.2% dithiothreitol) and buffer II (6 M urea, 0.375 M Tris–HCl, pH 8.8, 2% SDS, 20% glycerol, 1.25% [w/v] iodoacetamide). The IPG strips were then subjected to second-dimension SDS-PAGE through 18% polyacrylamide gels. The contents of one gel were transferred to a PVDF membrane and immunblotted with MAb 10A5 to confirm the presence of the antigen. The two replicate gels were fixed and stained with colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250.
MALDI-ToF and MS analysis
For MALDI-ToF/MS, gel slices containing the antigen immunoprecipitated by MAb 10A5 were excised from 1-D and 2-D gels after fixation and staining in colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250. Because the antigen did not take up the dye, it was localized in the gels by comparison to replicate immunoblots probed with MAb 10A5. As an added assurance that gel slices from 2-D gels contained the immunoreactive antigen, ends of the excised pieces were probed with MAb 10A5 by immunoblotting. A 1-mm piece clipped from both ends of each slice were equilibrated in denaturing sample buffer, subjected to SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF, and probed with MAb 10A5. Gel slices shown to contain the antigen were submitted to Applied Biomics, Inc. (Hayward, CA) for trypsin digestion and MALDI-ToF/MS on an Applied Biosystems Proteomics analyzer. Mass lists compiled from the mass spectra were searched against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NCBInr) mammalian protein database using GPS Explorer software equipped with the MASCOT search engine.
Protease digestion of the 25/45 fraction
The 25/45 fraction from 20-day-old rats was subjected to in-solution trypsin digestion as described in the product bulletin (Part# 9PIV511) for TPCK-modified sequencing grade trypsin (Promega, Madison, WI). A sample containing 100 μg of 25/45 fraction protein dissolved in 50 μl of protein denaturation buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl, 6 M urea, 4 mM DTT, pH 8.0) was digested at 37°C with 5 μg of trypsin in 300 μl of digestion buffer (50 mM Tris–HCl, 1 mM CaCl2, pH 7.6). Aliquots containing 20 μg of the 25/45 fraction were removed after 0 h (undigested control containing no enzyme), 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h of incubation. Digestion was stopped by adding 3 μl of 50 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) to each aliquot and immediately storing the samples at -80°C. Digestion with proteinase K (Fisher Scientific, St. Louis, MO) was performed in similar fashion, except that proteinase K was used at a concentration of 0.1 μg/μl in digestion buffer comprising 50 mM Tris–HCl, 5 mM CaCl2, pH 7.5, and digestion was stopped by adding 5 μl of 50 mM PMSF to each 20 μg aliquot. All samples were lyophilized to dryness and then reconstituted in 30 μl of Laemmli sample buffer prior to SDS-PAGE through duplicate 18% resolving gels (15 μl/lane). Gels were stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 or immunoblotted with MAb 10A5 as previously described.
Folch extraction of the 25/45 fraction and thin-layer chromatography
A sample containing 400 μg of 25/45 fraction protein from 20-day-old rats was subjected to the Folch lipid extraction procedure (Folch et al. 1957). The upper phase, interface, and lower phase were collected into separate glass tubes, lyophilized to dryness, and rehydrated in 60 μl of PBS. Fifteen μl from each sample were mixed with 5 μl of 4X Laemmli sample buffer and incubated in a boiling water bath for 5 min. Each 20-μl sample was then subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting to determine which fraction(s) contained the antigen recognized by MAb 10A5.
The upper phase obtained by Folch extraction from 200 μg of 25/45 fraction protein was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on duplicate 20 × 20 cm, 250 micron Uniplate™ Silica Gel H, binder-free plates (Analtech, Newark, DE) with a propanol/water (7:3 v/v) solvent system. One TLC plate was stained with resorcinol (Findlay and Evans 1990), while the duplicate plate was used to recover gangliosides for immunoblotting. For ganglioside recovery, consecutive 2 × 2 cm silica gel bands were scraped from lanes containing the upper phase and eluted into 1 ml of chloroform/methanol (1:1 v/v). Volumes were reduced under a nitrogen stream, and samples were solubilized in 40 μl of Laemmli sample buffer prior to SDS-PAGE (20 μl/lane) and immunoblotting with MAb 10A5.
The upper phase of the 25/45 fraction Folch extract was also subjected to high performance TLC on 10 × 10 cm HPTLC Silica Gel 60 plates (Fisher Scientific) (Schlosshauer et al. 1988). Gangliosides extracted from the equivalent of 20, 9.7, and 6.4 μg of 25/45 fraction protein were spotted onto the HPTLC plates in 1 μl of chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v) along with bovine mixed ganglioside standards (Matreya, Pleasant Gap, PA) in adjacent lanes. Additional samples applied to the HPTLC Silica Gel 60 plates included the proteoglycans chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate, each applied at 10 μg. Plates were developed in a solvent system comprising chloroform/methanol/0.2% aqueous CaCl2 (55:45:10 v/v/v) and stained with resorcinol.
Ganglioside dot blot immunoassay
MAb 10A5 was tested for reactivity against bovine gangliosides by a dot blot immunoassay adapted from the method of Chabraoui et al. (1993). A PVDF membrane was wetted in methanol, soaked for 5 min in PBS, and then inserted while still wet into a dot blot apparatus (Bio-Rad). Membrane spots were dried by vacuum pressure and then coated with antigens solubilized in methanol (1.5 μl/spot). Antigens included bovine mixed gangliosides (5 μg), purified bovine GD1a (1 μg, Matreya), the Folch upper phase extracted from 2 μg of 25/45 fraction protein, and 50 ng of the irrelevant bacterial protein RadA-6xHis (Richardson et al. 2012), the latter serving as a negative control. After a 90-min incubation at room temperature to facilitate antigen adsorption, the membrane was removed from the apparatus, rinsed in PBS, and blocked for 60 min in PBS containing 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Replicate strips cut from the membrane were incubated for 60 min in MAb 10A5 or an isotype-matched negative control antibody [MAb 2A2 specific for RadA-6×His (Richardson et al. 2012)], each diluted to 2 μg/ml in PBS-1% BSA. After several washes in PBS, the strips were incubated for 60 min in 1:2000 goat anti-mouse IgG-alkaline phosphatase, washed again, and then developed in NBT/BCIP substrate. To demonstrate that gangliosides remained bound to the PVDF membrane throughout the dot blot protocol, one of the replicate strips was stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 to enable visualization of white ganglioside spots against a dark blue background.
This study was supported by the Warner-Fermaturo Fund and the Graduate Program at A.T. Still University, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine.
- Beebe DC, Vasiliev O, Guo J, Shui YB, Bassnett S: Changes in adhesion complexes define stages in the differentiation of lens fiber cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001, 42(3):727-734.Google Scholar
- Borchman D, Cenedella RJ, Lamba OP: Role of cholesterol in the structural order of lens membrane lipids. Exp Eye Res 1996, 62(2):191-197. 10.1006/exer.1996.0023Google Scholar
- Campbell AM: Monoclonal antibody technology: the production and characterization of rodent and human hybridomas. In Laboratory techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology, vol 13. Edited by: Burdon RH, Knippenberg PH. Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc., New York; 1984.Google Scholar
- Castellanos-Serra L, Proenza W, Huerta V, Moritz RL, Simpson RJ: Proteome analysis of polyacrylamide gel-separated proteins visualized by reversible negative staining using imidazole-zinc salts. Electrophoresis 1999, 20(4–5):732-737.Google Scholar
- Cavallotti CAP, Cerulli L: Age related changes of the human eye. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ; 2008.Google Scholar
- Cenedella RJ, Fleschner CR: Selective association of crystallins with lens 'native’ membrane during dynamic cataractogenesis. Curr Eye Res 1992, 11(8):801-815. 10.3109/02713689209000753Google Scholar
- Chabraoui F, Derrington EA, Mallie-Didier F, Confavreux C, Quincy C, Caudie C: Dot-blot immunodetection of antibodies against GM1 and other gangliosides on PVDF-P membranes. J Immunol Methods 1993, 165(2):225-230. 10.1016/0022-1759(93)90348-BGoogle Scholar
- De Maria A, Shi Y, Kumar NM, Bassnett S: Calpain expression and activity during lens fiber cell differentiation. J Biol Chem 2009, 284(20):13542-13550. doi:10.1074/jbc.M900561200 10.1074/jbc.M900561200Google Scholar
- Findlay JBC, Evans WH: Biological membranes: a practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford University Press, New York, NY; 1990.Google Scholar
- Fleschner CR: Intermediate filament cytoskeletal proteins associated with bovine lens native membrane fractions. Curr Eye Res 1998, 17(4):409-418. 10.1080/02713689808951222Google Scholar
- Fleschner CR: Lens membrane fraction associated intermediate filaments of different aged rats. Curr Eye Res 2002, 24(4):296-304. 10.1076/ceyr.24.4.296.8415Google Scholar
- Fleschner CR, Cenedella RJ: Lipid composition of lens plasma membrane fractions enriched in fiber junctions. J Lipid Res 1991, 32(1):45-53.Google Scholar
- Fleschner CR, Cenedella RJ: Isolation of a non-sedimenting membrane fraction from the water soluble fraction of bovine lens. Exp Eye Res 1993, 56(6):649-657. 10.1006/exer.1993.1082Google Scholar
- Fleschner CR, Cenedella RJ: Neutral lipids of the plasma membrane: composition of plasma membrane fractions isolated from ocular lens. Curr Eye Res 1997, 16(3):263-269. 10.1076/ceyr.16.3.263.15402Google Scholar
- Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH: A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 1957, 226(1):497-509.Google Scholar
- Fukunaga S, Ueno H, Yamaguchi T, Yano Y, Hoshino M, Matsuzaki K: GM1 Cluster mediates formation of toxic abeta fibrils by providing hydrophobic environments. Biochemistry 2012, 51(41):8125-8131. doi:10.1021/bi300839u 10.1021/bi300839uGoogle Scholar
- Goldberg HA, Warner KJ: The staining of acidic proteins on polyacrylamide gels: enhanced sensitivity and stability of "stains-all" staining in combination with silver nitrate. Anal Biochem 1997, 251(2):227-233. 10.1006/abio.1997.2252Google Scholar
- Hakomori S: Glycosphingolipids in cellular interaction, differentiation, and oncogenesis. Annu Rev Biochem 1981, 50: 733-764. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181.003505 10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181.003505Google Scholar
- Hardy E, Pupo E, Castellanos-Serra L, Reyes J, Fernandez-Patron C: Sensitive reverse staining of bacterial lipopolysaccharides on polyacrylamide gels by using zinc and imidazole salts. Anal Biochem 1997, 244(1):28-32. 10.1006/abio.1996.9719Google Scholar
- Heuser E, Lipp K, Wiegandt H: Detection of sialic acid containing compounds and the behaviour of gangliosides in polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis. Anal Biochem 1974, 60(2):382-388. 10.1016/0003-2697(74)90245-0Google Scholar
- Jacob RF, Cenedella RJ, Mason RP: Direct evidence for immiscible cholesterol domains in human ocular lens fiber cell plasma membranes. J Biol Chem 1999, 274(44):31613-31618. 10.1074/jbc.274.44.31613Google Scholar
- Jacob RF, Cenedella RJ, Mason RP: Evidence for distinct cholesterol domains in fiber cell membranes from cataractous human lenses. J Biol Chem 2001, 276(17):13573-13578.Google Scholar
- Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970, 227(5259):680-685. 10.1038/227680a0Google Scholar
- Lajoie P, Goetz JG, Dennis JW, Nabi IR: Lattices, rafts, and scaffolds: domain regulation of receptor signaling at the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol 2009, 185(3):381-385. 10.1083/jcb.200811059Google Scholar
- Lee A, Fischer RS, Fowler VM: Stabilization and remodeling of the membrane skeleton during lens fiber cell differentiation and maturation. Dev Dyn 2000, 217(3):257-270. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200003)217:3<257::AID-DVDY4>3.0.CO;2-5 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200003)217:3<257::AID-DVDY4>3.0.CO;2-5Google Scholar
- May GL, Wright LC, Holmes KT, Williams PG, Smith IC, Wright PE, Fox RM, Mountford CE: Assignment of methylene proton resonances in NMR spectra of embryonic and transformed cells to plasma membrane triglyceride. J Biol Chem 1986, 261(7):3048-3053.Google Scholar
- McJarrow P, Schnell N, Jumpsen J, Clandinin T: Influence of dietary gangliosides on neonatal brain development. Nutr Rev 2009, 67(8):451-463. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00211.x 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00211.xGoogle Scholar
- Ogiso M: Implication of glycolipids in lens fiber development. Acta Biochim Pol 1998, 45(2):501-507.Google Scholar
- Ogiso M, Saito N, Sudo K, Kubo H, Hirano S, Komoto M: Increase in lens gangliosides due to aging and cataract progression in human senile cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990, 31(10):2171-2179.Google Scholar
- Osborne JC, Moss J, Fishman PH, Nakaya S, Robertson DC: Specificity in protein-membrane associations: the interaction of gangliosides with escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and choleragen. Biophys J 1982, 37(1):168-169. 10.1016/S0006-3495(82)84654-7Google Scholar
- Perdue N, Yan Q: Caveolin-1 is up-regulated in transdifferentiated lens epithelial cells but minimal in normal human and murine lenses. Exp Eye Res 2006, 83(5):1154-1161. doi:S0014-4835(06)00291-0 [pii] 10.1016/j.exer.2006.06.007 10.1016/j.exer.2006.06.007Google Scholar
- Raguz M, Widomska J, Dillon J, Gaillard ER, Subczynski WK: Characterization of lipid domains in reconstituted porcine lens membranes using EPR spin-labeling approaches. Biochim Biophys Acta 2008, 1778(4):1079-1090. 10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.01.024Google Scholar
- Richardson NC, Sargentini NJ, Singh VK, Stuart MK: Monoclonal antibodies against the Escherichia coli DNA repair protein RadA/Sms. Hybridoma 2012, 31(1):25-31. doi:10.1089/hyb.2011.0075 10.1089/hyb.2011.0075Google Scholar
- Saito M, Sugiyama K: Gangliosides of rat eye lens: a severe reduction in the content of C-series gangliosides following streptozotocin treatment. Life Sci 2000, 67(15):1891-1899. 10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00774-8Google Scholar
- Saito M, Sugiyama K: Tissue-specific expression of c-series gangliosides in the extraneural system. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000, 1474(1):88-92. 10.1016/S0304-4165(99)00222-6Google Scholar
- Sarkar CP, Cenedella RJ: Gangliosides in normal and cataractous lenses of several species. Biochim Biophys Acta 1982, 711(3):503-508. 10.1016/0005-2760(82)90065-0Google Scholar
- Schlosshauer B, Blum AS, Mendez-Otero R, Barnstable CJ, Constantine-Paton M: Developmental regulation of ganglioside antigens recognized by the JONES antibody. J Neurosci 1988, 8(2):580-592.Google Scholar
- Seldin DC, Austen KF, Stevens RL: Purification and characterization of protease-resistant secretory granule proteoglycans containing chondroitin sulfate di-B and heparin-like glycosaminoglycans from rat basophilic leukemia cells. J Biol Chem 1985, 260(20):11131-11139.Google Scholar
- Sonnino S, Mauri L, Chigorno V, Prinetti A: Gangliosides as components of lipid membrane domains. Glycobiology 2007, 17(1):1R-13R.Google Scholar
- Stuart MK, Chamberlain NR: Monoclonal antibodies to elongation factor-1alpha inhibit in vitro translation in lysates of Sf21 cells. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2003, 52(1):17-34. 10.1002/arch.10061Google Scholar
- Swindell RT, Harris H, Buchanan L, Bell C, Albers-Jackson B: Ganglioside composition in human cataractous nuclei. Ophthalmic Res 1988, 20(4):232-236. 10.1159/000266650Google Scholar
- Tang D, Borchman D, Yappert MC, Cenedella RJ: Influence of cholesterol on the interaction of alpha-crystallin with phospholipids. Exp Eye Res 1998, 66(5):559-567. 10.1006/exer.1997.0467Google Scholar
- Tao RV, Lee BC: Isolation and identification of sialic acids from the gangliosides of human cataracts. Curr Eye Res 1986, 5(2):167-170. 10.3109/02713688609015105Google Scholar
- Terry DE, Umstot E, Desiderio DM: Optimized sample-processing time and peptide recovery for the mass spectrometric analysis of protein digests. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2004, 15(6):784-794. 10.1016/j.jasms.2004.02.005Google Scholar
- Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J: Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1979, 76(9):4350-4354. 10.1073/pnas.76.9.4350Google Scholar
- University of Missouri Proteomics Center: Acrylamide gel protein detection methods. 2006. . Accessed 12 Sept 2013 http://proteomics.missouri.edu/protocols/proteinDetection.html Google Scholar
- Van Deusen RA: Making hybridomas. In Hybridoma technology in agricultural and veterinary research. Edited by: Stern NJ, Gamble HR. Rowan & Allanheld, Totowa, NJ; 1983:15-25.Google Scholar
- Voller A, Bartlett A, Bidwell DE, Clark MF, Adams AN: The detection of viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). J Gen Virol 1976, 33(1):165-167. 10.1099/0022-1317-33-1-165Google Scholar
- Wall RS, Gyi TJ: Alcian blue staining of proteoglycans in polyacrylamide gels using the "critical electrolyte concentration" approach. Anal Biochem 1988, 175(1):298-299. 10.1016/0003-2697(88)90392-2Google Scholar
- Windeler AS, Feldman GL: The isolation and partial structural characterization of some ocular gangliosides. Biochim Biophys Acta 1970, 202(2):361-366. 10.1016/0005-2760(70)90199-2Google Scholar
- Zou H: The sister bonding of duplicated chromosomes. Semin Cell Dev Biol 2011, 22(6):566-571. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.03.013 10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.03.013Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.