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  1. Chitin is the second most abundant polymer in nature after cellulose and plays a major role in fungal cell walls. As a producer of variety of chitinase enzymes Trichoderma has become an important means of biologi...

    Authors: Toshy Agrawal and Anil S Kotasthane
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:73
  2. Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, ...

    Authors: Wen-Yang Lin, He-Yi Li, Jhih-Wei Du, Wen-Yu Feng, Chiao-Feng Lo and Von-Wun Soo
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:72
  3. Seven isolates of bacteria (SRI-156, SRI-158, SRI-178, SRI-211, SRI-229, SRI-305 and SRI-360) were earlier reported by us as having potential for biocontrol of charcoal rot of sorghum and plant growth promotio...

    Authors: Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, HD Upadhyaya, Srinivas Vadlamudi, Pagidi Humayun, Meesala Sree Vidya, Gottumukkala Alekhya, Amit Singh, Rajendran Vijayabharathi, Ratna Kumari Bhimineni, Murali Seema, Abhishek Rathore and Om Rupela
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:71
  4. The present study was conducted to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from sputum samples of lower respiratory tract infection patients admitted to different hospitals of Ka...

    Authors: Anab Fatima, Syed Baqir Naqvi, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Shaheen Perveen and Sabahat Jabeen
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:70
  5. Results of previous studies support the existence of a spatially coherent, secularly varying climate signal, propagating through a network of synchronized climate indices across the Northern Hemisphere during ...

    Authors: Marcia Glaze Wyatt and John M Peters
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:68
  6. Conjugated linoleic acid l-menthyl ester was hydrolyzed in water by the lipase from Candida rugosa with the addition of an organic solvent. The degree of hydrolysis (yield) greatly improved when a tertiary alcoho...

    Authors: Takashi Kobayashi, Toshihiro Nagao, Yomi Watanabe and Yuji Shimada
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:67
  7. Adiponectin is an obesity related protein that mediates the risk of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals with its anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. To date, five functional variations have ...

    Authors: Leah C Kottyan, Jessica G Woo, Mehdi Keddache, Walter Banach, Nancy A Crimmins, Lawrence M Dolan and Lisa J Martin
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:66
  8. Multiple epigenetic changes, including alterations in DNA methylation occur during tumorigenesis. Various inhibitors of DNA methylation have been developed to prevent proliferation of cancer cells. 5-fluoro-2-de...

    Authors: Quanyi Zhao, Jiadong Fan, Wei Hong, Lianyun Li and Min Wu
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:65
  9. The development of computer software and other technologies greatly facilitates the evaluation of pathological voice patients. This fact allows to reduce exploration time, improves the reproducibility of resul...

    Authors: Amaia Méndez Zorrilla, Begoña García Zapirain and Agustín Pérez Izquierdo
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:64
  10. Cardiac healing, which follows myocardial infarction, is a complex process guided by intricate interactions among different components. Some resident cell populations with a potential role in cardiac healing h...

    Authors: David Lara-Astiaso, Alberto Izarra, Juan Camilo Estrada, Carmen Albo, Isabel Moscoso, Enrique Samper, Javier Moncayo, Abelardo Solano, Antonio Bernad and Antonio Díez-Juan
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:63
  11. During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importan...

    Authors: Prabhakar B Ghorpade, Praveen K Gupta, Vibhu Prakash, Richard J Cuthbert, Mandar Kulkarni, Nikita Prakash, Asit Das, Anil K Sharma and Mohini Saini
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:62
  12. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.9) is an unique enzyme capable of converting starch and related substrates into cyclodextrins (CDs). In this paper, we report an one step gel purification meth...

    Authors: Marlene M Martínez Mora, Karel Hernández Sánchez, Reynaldo Villalonga Santana, Arley Pérez Rojas, Héctor L Ramírez and Juan José Torres-Labandeira
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:61
  13. A reproducible and highly efficient protocol for genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium has been established for greengram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Double cotyledonary node (DCN) explants were inocul...

    Authors: Sushil Kumar Yadav, Sweety Katikala, Varalaxmi Yellisetty, Annapurna Kannepalle, Jyothi Lakshmi Narayana, Vanaja Maddi, Maheswari Mandapaka, Arun Kumar Shanker, Venkateswarlu Bandi and Kirti Pulugurtha Bharadwaja
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:59
  14. Although noncrop woody plants in crop field landscapes serve multiple functions, the modernization of agriculture has threatened their preservation. In this study, isolated woody plants used as farmland bounda...

    Authors: Yoshinori Tokuoka and Daisuke Hosogi
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:57
  15. Botanical work since 2008 on the Sleeping Giant section of the Kamdebooberge (Sneeuberg mountain complex, Eastern Cape, South Africa) has indicated that these mountains may be of significant conservation value...

    Authors: Vincent R Clark, Sandun J Perera, Michael Stiller, Charles H Stirton, Peter H Weston, Pavel Stoev, Gareth Coombs, Dale B Morris, Dayani Ratnayake-Perera, Nigel P Barker and Gillian K McGregor
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:56
  16. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that would occasionally lead to energy malnutrition through therapeutic hypoxic stress. We aimed to ...

    Authors: Masaya Saito, Yasushi Seo, Yoshihiko Yano, Akira Miki, Kenji Momose, Hirotaka Hirano, Masaru Yoshida and Takeshi Azuma
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:55
  17. In this work the subC gene from Bacillus licheniformis encoding subtilisin was cloned into the nisin-controlled expression (NICE) vectors (pNZ8048 and pNZ8148) with or without the signal peptide SP Usp45 directin...

    Authors: Aleksandra M Mirończuk, Anna Krasowska, Anna Murzyn, Małgorzata Płachetka and Marcin Łukaszewicz
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:54
  18. The outstanding electrical and mechanical properties of graphene make it very attractive for several applications, Nanoelectronics above all. However a reproducible and non destructive way to produce high qual...

    Authors: Marco Piazzi, Luca Croin, Ettore Vittone and Giampiero Amato
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:52
  19. GC-MS analysis of single-skins of ten Melanophryniscus rubriventris toads (five collections of two toads each) captured during their breeding season in NW Argentina has revealed a total of 127 alkaloids of which ...

    Authors: H Martin Garraffo, Nirina R Andriamaharavo, Marcos Vaira, María F Quiroga, Cecilia Heit and Thomas F Spande
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:51
  20. This study was carried out to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for live weight of Nellore cattle from Performance Test of Young Bulls using random regression models. Data of weights and ...

    Authors: Fernando Brito Lopes, Cláudio Ulhôa Magnabosco, Fernanda Paulini, Marcelo Corrêa da Silva, Eliane Sayuri Miyagi and Raysildo Barbosa Lôbo
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:49
  21. For the first time, an analysis was carried out of allozyme variability in trout (Salmo trutta) from three rivers of Iran. We studied 23 gene loci coding enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), as...

    Authors: Vahid Taghizadeh, Gerigori Genadevich Novikov and Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:48
  22. Background: A 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced murine colitis model was developed to investigate the pathogenesis and to evaluate a method of treating human Crohn’s disease. This experimental...

    Authors: Eiichi Momotani, Hiroshi Ozaki, Masatoshi Hori, Shizuo Yamamoto, Takashi Kuribayashi, Shigetoshi Eda and Masahiro Ikegami
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:47
  23. We conducted a descriptive study of children presenting with recurrent headaches to the general pediatric services of a tertiary-care, public hospital in northern India. This paper reports on the triggering fa...

    Authors: Devendra Mishra and Ankit Sharma
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:45
  24. Enforced cell transdifferentiation of human cancer cells is a promising alternative to conventional chemotherapy. We previously identified albumin-associated lipid- and, more specifically, saturated fatty acid...

    Authors: Jaime Carcel-Trullols, Cristóbal Aguilar-Gallardo, Fernando Garcia-Alcalde, Miguel Angel Pardo-Cea, Joaquin Dopazo, Ana Conesa and Carlos Simón
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:44
  25. Lactic acid has been identified as one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass. Therefore, the search for cheap raw materials is an objective to reduce the production costs. Efficient pol...

    Authors: Zhangwei Xue, Limin Wang, Jiansong Ju, Bo Yu, Ping Xu and Yanhe Ma
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:43
  26. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide and considered to be influenced by inherited and environmental factors. Recently, we demonstrated a genome-wide association ...

    Authors: Yuichi Tokuda, Tomohito Yagi, Kengo Yoshii, Yoko Ikeda, Masahiro Fuwa, Morio Ueno, Masakazu Nakano, Natsue Omi, Masami Tanaka, Kazuhiko Mori, Masaaki Kageyama, Ikumitsu Nagasaki, Katsumi Yagi, Shigeru Kinoshita and Kei Tashiro
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:41
  27. Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and chest X-ray are the conventional methods used for tracing suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The purpose of the study was to calculate the cost incurred by Penang General H...

    Authors: Muhammad Atif, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Asrul Akmal Shafie, Irfhan Ali and Muhammad Asif
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:40
  28. Body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for luminal-type breast cancer in Western populations. However, it is unclear whether the impact of BMI differs according to breast cancer subtype in Japanes...

    Authors: Aiko Sueta, Hidemi Ito, Tania Islam, Satoyo Hosono, Miki Watanabe, Kaoru Hirose, Takashi Fujita, Yasushi Yatabe, Hiroji Iwata, Kazuo Tajima, Hideo Tanaka, Hirotaka Iwase and Keitaro Matsuo
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:39
  29. The B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene family encodes pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins that are critical regulators of programmed cell death. Higher levels of BCL2 expression in breast tumours have been shown t...

    Authors: Claire J Searle, Ian W Brock, Simon S Cross, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian, Malcolm W R Reed and Angela Cox
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:38
  30. Azo dyes constitute the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries and represent major components in wastewater from these industrial ...

    Authors: Elisangela Franciscon, Matthew James Grossman, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal, Felix Guillermo Reyes Reyes and Lucia Regina Durrant
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:37
  31. Here, we investigate the appropriate fluorescent proteins for use in the culture of synovial MH7A and myoblast C2C12 cells. Fluorescent signal intensities of 3 different fluorescent proteins were examined in t...

    Authors: Seiji Shibasaki, Aika Fujita, Chihiro Usui, Sachiko Watanabe, Sachie Kitano, Hajime Sano and Tsuyoshi Iwasaki
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:36
  32. Fibropapillomatosis (FP), a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles characterized by a likely herpesviral primary etiology, has emerged as an important disease in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) ove...

    Authors: Annie Page-Karjian, Fernando Torres, Jian Zhang, Samuel Rivera, Carlos Diez, Phillip A Moore, Debra Moore and Corrie Brown
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:35
  33. Identification of poor and rapid metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses of drugs metabolized by ...

    Authors: Ekta Varshney, Nilanjan Saha, Monika Tandon, Vikesh Shrivastava and Shakir Ali
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:34
  34. The genus Chlorella is a widely employed microalga for biodiesel, as it can be grown using photo/mixo/heterotrophic mode of cultivation. The present investigation was undertaken with the hypothesis that addition ...

    Authors: Momocha Ngangkham, Sachitra Kumar Ratha, Radha Prasanna, Anil Kumar Saxena, Dolly Wattal Dhar, Chandragiri Sarika and Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:33
  35. Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. T...

    Authors: Bilqees Fatima and Sikander Ali
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:32
  36. Regarding the possible multiple functions of a specific gene, finding the alternative roles of genes is a major challenge. Huge amount of available expression data and the central role of the promoter and its ...

    Authors: Tahereh Deihimi, Ali Niazi, Mansour Ebrahimi, Kimia Kajbaf, Somaye Fanaee, Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh and Esmaeile Ebrahimie
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:30
  37. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 6b L1 capsid protein was expressed using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system in silkworm larvae. Two constructs, full-length L1 (500 a.a) and C-termina...

    Authors: Muthukutty Palaniyandi, Tatsuya Kato and Enoch Y Park
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:29
  38. In this paper, we incorporate a marketing technology into a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model by assuming a matching friction for consumption. An improvement in matching can be interpreted as an inc...

    Authors: Kenichi Tamegawa
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:28
  39. Considering the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production, there is a need for a yeast strain which can convert glucose and xylose into ethanol at elevated temperatures. We succeeded in isolating a yeast str...

    Authors: Ayumi Tanimura, Toshihide Nakamura, Itsuki Watanabe, Jun Ogawa and Jun Shima
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:27
  40. The Western Ghats of India are known to be a major biological hotspot that supports plant diversity and endemism. On the Kas Plateau, a lateritic plateau of the northern Western Ghats, we examined mesoscale di...

    Authors: Utsarga Bhattarai, Pundarikakshudu Tetali and Sylvia Kelso
    Citation: SpringerPlus 2012 1:25