Open Access

Biodiversity baseline of the French Guiana spider fauna

  • Vincent Vedel1, 2Email author,
  • Christina Rheims3,
  • Jérôme Murienne4 and
  • Antonio Domingos Brescovit3
SpringerPlus20132:361

https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-361

Received: 11 April 2013

Accepted: 18 July 2013

Published: 30 July 2013

Abstract

The need for an updated list of spiders found in French Guiana rose recently due to many upcoming studies planned. In this paper, we list spiders from French Guiana from existing literature (with corrected nomenclature when necessary) and from 2142 spiders sampled in 12 sites for this baseline study. Three hundred and sixty four validated species names of spider were found in the literature and previous authors’ works. Additional sampling, conducted for this study added another 89 identified species and 62 other species with only a genus name for now. The total species of spiders sampled in French Guiana is currently 515. Many other Morphospecies were found but not described as species yet. An accumulation curve was drawn with seven of the sampling sites and shows no plateau yet. Therefore, the number of species inhabiting French Guiana cannot yet be determined. As the very large number of singletons found in the collected materials suggests, the accumulation curve indicates nevertheless that more sampling is necessary to discover the many unknown spider species living in French Guiana, with a focus on specific periods (dry season and wet season) and on specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg and cambrouze (local bamboo monospecific forest).

Keywords

AraneaeArachnidsBio monitoringFrench GuianaNeotropicsSpecies richness

Background

Under the Streamline European Biodiversity Inventory 2010 protocols (SEBI) (Butchardt et al. 2010; Jones et al. 2011), species occurrences and abundances are currently only being assessed through survey of birds and butterflies. While there is a general agreement that those groups should continue to be monitored (EEA technical report No 11/2012) (EEA (2005), the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON), the European Biodiversity Observatory Network (EBON) (Reviewed in Scholes et al. 2008) and many authors specialized in this field (De Baan et al. 2012; Cardoso et al. 2011; Feest 2013; Feest et al. 2011) have recommended the survey and monitoring of additional groups to fill the taxonomic and ecological gaps.

Spiders have been identified as a meaningful additional indicator taxon by the European Commission FP7-BioBio project (Targetti et al. 2012) not only because they represent well the local micro-fauna richness, but also because they are easy and cheap to sample, sensitive to changes (Cardoso et al. 2008), have little dispersal potential (New 1999), are abundant and diverse (Foelix 1996), represent differences in other species richness and diversity (Cardoso et al. 2008) and are recognized by stakeholders. Moreover, rigorous sampling protocols have just been set up (Cardoso 2009) and locally adapted (Vedel and Lalagüe 2013). They provide a complementary alternative to Lepidoptera in term of distribution and ecological functions as top predators of soil and lower vegetation communities (Cardoso et al. 2008) and are extremely diverse in tropical rain forest (Sørensen et al. 2002; Pinkus-Rendón et al. 2006; Coddington et al. 2009).

French Guiana is 97% covered by primary forest and hosts an exceptionally diverse and distinctive equatorial forest, part of the Amazonian tropical rainforest. This region also has an increasing demographic and economic development, which will raise conservation issues in the near future. As such it deserves special attention from the scientific community. The last integrative spider species list for French Guiana is almost 70 years old (Di Caporiacco 1954) with few later additions (Drolshagen and Bäckstam 2011; Lopez 1988). In this study, our goal is to establish a baseline biodiversity reference for the spider fauna of French Guiana to enable further studies which will set spider monitoring as an efficient “tool” for assessment and monitoring local biodiversity.

Results and discussion

2142 spider specimens were sampled and sent for identification during this study. Identification results are summarized in Table 1. About 692 Morphospecies (M-S from hereonin) were singled out from this material with many M-S represented only by singletons. Many of these M-S could not be identified yet, and therefore are not included in the species list. In addition, many individuals could not be identified because they were either juveniles or undescribed, and they were therefore excluded from this list. Individuals identified only at the genus level are mainly species which are either not recognized yet, even with the sexual organs (often just one sex represented), or are a species new to science and therefore not described and not named yet. In any case they represent a species not found in the region until now.

Table 1

Number of specimens collected for each location with the number of morpho-species recognized

Sampling site

Coordinates

Season

Number of

Number of

Type of

Sampling

   

collected individuals

morpho-species

habitats

methods

Crique Baggot

22N0329797-0501628

Wet

24

23

FF

B(1), SN(1), H(1)

Gentry plots (Petite Montagne Tortue, Régina)

22N0362289-0477672

Wet, Dry

97

58

WS, FF, TF

MT, WP

Gentry plots (Laussat Ouest)

22N0213521-0605836

Wet, Dry

76

42

WS, FF, TF

MT, WP

Grand Connétable Island

22N0396505-0534312

Wet

15

10

OI

H(2)

Kaw

22N0315898-0556000

Wet

78

60

WF

B(2), SN(2), S(2)

La Trinité

22N0232748-0510994

Dry

439

242

FF, TF, I

B (6), SN(6), S(3), WP

Mont Itoupé

-

Wet

74

61

I

WP, MT

Nouragues

22N0314321-0446496

Wet

338

175

FF, TF, I

B(6), SN(6), S(3), WP

Nouragues

22N0307547-0450440

Dry

375

270

FF, TF, I

B(10), SN(10), S(5), WP

Piste des compagnons

22N0310766-0564719

Dry

27

25

TF

MT

Saül

22N0253843-0400740

Wet

482

347

FF, TF, I

B(6), SN-6), S(3),

Savane-roche Virginie

22N0257866, W0731672

Dry

117

43

I

SN(2), H(2)

Total

  

2142

NA

  

Abbreviations: (FF Flooded Forest, TF Terra Firme, I Inselberg, WF Wet Forest, OI Oceanic Island, WS White Sand, B Beating, SN Sweep Net, S Sieve, H by Hand, WP Window Pane trap, MT Malaise Trap. Numbers in brackets reflect the units of sampling effort for the active techniques applied. The wet season lasts from December until June and the dry season from July until November with some little variations. The total number of M-S cannot be determined (and it is therefore noted NA=Not Applicable) because at some sites spiders were not photographed and could not be compared with other sites (those sites are the ones not used for the following analyses).

After adding to Caporiacco (1954) list the sampling from this study and the previously identified materials from the two last authors, we obtained a total number of 515 species belonging to 45 families (Table 2). Therefore, 151 new species were added in this study and nine new families for French Guiana were also found: Amaurobiidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Hersiliidae, Linyphiidae, Miturgidae, Oonopidae, Prodidomidae, Senoculidae and Synotaxidae (see Table 3 for the detailed list of species). From these 151 new species 89 species were named at the species level (Table 2), which indicates this study added 20% more species names to the French Guianan total. Only 137 species described in Caporiacco’s work (1954), which represent about 40% of the species number, were resampled in our study. This number is probably largely underestimated due to the lack of certain identification for many specimens.
Table 2

Details of number of species from the existing literature added now from the ones found in this study

Sources

Species level

M-S identified at the

  

Genus level

Former list published: (Caporiacco 1954)

364

0

Brescovit’s review (Brescovit et al. 2011)

34

2

Present study’s samples

55

60

Total

453

62

Table 3

Current list of identified spiders from French Guiana with notes about the current names

Guyane+espèces

Familyx

Species

New finding

Notes

Amaurobiidae

Amaurobius brevis (Taczanowski, 1874)

B

incertae sedis/ Corinnidae

Amaurobiidae

Amaurobius cayanus (Taczanowski, 1874)

B

incertae sedis/ Corinnidae

Amaurobiidae

Amaurobius hirtus (Taczanowski, 1874)

B

incertae sedis/ Corinnidae

Amaurobiidae

Amaurobius rufipes (Taczanowski, 1874)

B

incertae sedis/ Corinnidae

Anyphaenidae

Aljassa n. sp.1

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Anyphaenoides n. sp.1

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Hibana melloleitaoi (Caporiacco, 1947)

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Katissa n. sp.1

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Mesilla anyphaenoides (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Anyphaenidae

Patrera armata (Chickering, 1940)

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Patrera n. sp.1

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Patrera n. sp.2

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Patrera n. sp.3

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Patrera n. sp.4

V

 

Anyphaenidae

Sillus furciger (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Anyphaenidae

Wulfila n. sp.1

V

 

Araneidae

Actinosoma pentacanthum (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Araneidae

Acacesia hamata (Hentz, 1847)

  

Araneidae

Acacesia tenella (Koch, 1871)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida deborae (Levi, 1988)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida erythrothorax (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida graphica (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida marmorata (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida sulphurea (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida truncata (Keyserling, 1865)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida truncata obscura (Caporiacco 1954,1948)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida truncata sexmaculata (Caporiacco 1954, 1948)

  

Araneidae

Alpaida veniliae (Keyserling, 1865)

  

Araneidae

Araneus appendiculatus (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Araneus contestationis (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomem dubium

Araneidae

Araneus decaspinus (Taczanowski, 1873)

 

Nomem dubium

Araneidae

Araneus guttatus (Keyserling, 1865)

  

Araneidae

Araneus nigrocellatus (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Araneidae

Araneus venatrix (Koch, 1838)

  

Araneidae

Argiope argentata (Fabricius, 1775)

  

Araneidae

Argiope trifasciata (Forsskel, 1775)

  

Araneidae

Cercidia n. sp.1

  

Araneidae

Chaetacis abrahami (Mello-Leitão , 1948)

B

 

Araneidae

Chaetacis aureola (Koch, 1836)

  

Araneidae

Chaetacis cornuta (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Chaetacis necopinata (Chickering, 1960)

V

 

Araneidae

Cyclosa fililineata (Hingston, 1932)

V

 

Araneidae

Cyclosa nodosa (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Cyclosa walckenaeri (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Enacrosoma anomalum (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Epeiroides bahiensis (Keyserling, 1885)

  

Araneidae

Eriophora edax (Blackwall, 1863)

  

Araneidae

Eriophora fuliginea (Koch, 1838)

  

Araneidae

Eriophora nephiloides (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Eustacesia albonotata (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Araneidae

Eustala albicans (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Araneidae

Eustala anastera (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Araneidae

Eustala clavispina (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Eustala fuscovittata (Keyserling, 1863)

  

Araneidae

Eustala guianensis (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Eustala lunulifera (Mello-Leitão, 1939)

  

Araneidae

Eustala sagana (Keyserling, 1893)

  

Araneidae

Eustala scutigera (Cambridge, 1898)

  

Araneidae

Eustala semifoliata (Cambridge, 1899)

  

Araneidae

Eustala tridentata (Koch, 1838)

  

Araneidae

Eustala vegeta (Keyserling, 1865)

  

Araneidae

Gasteracantha cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758)

  

Araneidae

Hingstepeira folisecens (Hingston, 1932)

  

Araneidae

Hypognatha deplanata (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Hypognatha saut (Levi, 1996)

  

Araneidae

Hypognatha scutata (Perty, 1833)

  

Araneidae

Kapogea sexnotata (Simon, 1895)

  

Araneidae

Mangora melanocephala (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Araneidae

Mangora saut (Levi, 2007)

B

 

Araneidae

Mangora n. sp.1

V

 

Araneidae

Manogea porracea (Koch, 1838)

  

Araneidae

Metazygia n. sp.1

  

Araneidae

Metepeira brunneiceps (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Araneidae

Metepeira labyrinthea (Hentz, 1847)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena acuta (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena gracilis (Walckenaer, 1805)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena cyanospina (Lucas, 1835)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena clypeata (Walckenaer, 1805)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena evansi (Chickering 1960)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena excavata (Koch, 1836)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena fissispina (Koch, 1836)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena flaveola (Perty, 1839)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena hamifera (Simon, 1897)

B

 

Araneidae

Micrathena horrida (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena kirbyi (Perty, 1833)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena lata (Chickering, 1960)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena plana (Koch, 1836)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena pungens (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena saccata (Koch, 1836)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena schreibersi (Perty 1833)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena sexspinosa (Hahn, 1822)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena spinosa (Linnaeus, 1758)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena triangularis (Koch, 1836)

  

Araneidae

Micrathena triangularispinosa (De Geer, 1778)

  

Araneidae

Micrepeira hoeferi (Levi, 1995)

  

Araneidae

Micrepeira tubulofaciens (Hingston, 1932)

  

Araneidae

Neoscona benjamina (Walckenaer, 1841)

 

Nomem dubium

Araneidae

Neoscona nautica (Koch, 1875)

  

Araneidae

Neoscona theisi (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Araneidae

Ocrepeira albopunctata (Taczanowski, 1879)

  

Araneidae

Ocrepeira covillei (Levi, 1993)

  

Araneidae

Ocrepeira n. sp.2

  

Araneidae

Parawixia audax (Blackwall, 1863)

  

Araneidae

Parawixia kochi (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Parawixia velutina (Taczanowski, 1878)

  

Araneidae

Scoloderus tuberculifer (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Testudinaria quadripunctata (Taczanowski, 1879)

B

 

Araneidae

Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Araneidae

Verrucosa septemmammata (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Araneidae

Wagneriana jelskii (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Wagneriana tayos (Levi, 1991)

V

 

Araneidae

Wagneriana tauricornis (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Araneidae

Wagneriana transitoria (Koch, 1839)

  

Araneidae

Witica cayanus (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Araneidae

Wixia n. sp.1

  

Araneidae

Xylethrus n. sp.1

  

Barychelidae

Psalistops gasci (Maréchal, 1996)

  

Caponiidae

Nops branicki (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Clubionidae

Elaver sericea (Cambridge, 1898)

  

Clubionidae

Elaver n. sp.2

V

 

Corinnidae

Apochinomma n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Castianeira salticina (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Corinnidae

Castianeira n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Castianeira n. sp.2

V

 

Corinnidae

Corinna annulipes (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Corinnidae

Corinna anomala (Schmidt, 1971)

  

Corinnidae

Corinna kochi (Petrunkevith, 1911)

V

 

Corinnidae

Corinna n. sp.4

V

 

Corinnidae

Corinna n. sp.5

V

 

Corinnidae

Corinna n. sp.6

V

 

Corinnidae

Corinna n. sp.7

V

 

Corinnidae

Medmassa septentrionalis (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomem dubium

Corinnidae

Methesis brevitarsa (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Corinnidae

Myrmecium n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Myrmecium n. sp.2

V

 

Corinnidae

Myrmecium n. sp.3

V

 

Corinnidae

Myrmecium n. sp.4

V

 

Corinnidae

Myrmecium bifasciatum (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Corinnidae

Myrmecotypus n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Parachemmis hassleri (Gertsch, 1942)

V

 

Corinnidae

Parachemmis n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Paradiestius n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Tupirinna n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Trachelas anomalus (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Corinnidae

Trachelas n. sp.1

V

 

Corinnidae

Trachelas n. sp.2

V

 

Corinnidae

Trachelas n. sp.3

V

 

Ctenidae

Ancylometes bogotensis (Keyserling, 1876)

B

 

Ctenidae

Ancylometes rufus (Walckenaer, 1837)

  

Ctenidae

Centroctenus auberti (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Ctenidae

Ctenus ellacomei (Cambridge, 1902)

  

Ctenidae

Ctenus n. sp.1

V

 

Ctenidae

Ctenus n. sp.2

V

 

Ctenidae

Ctenus n. sp.3

  

Ctenidae

Ctenus villasboasi (Mello-Leitao, 1949)

V

 

Ctenidae

Ctenus crulsi (Mello-Leitao, 1930)

V

 

Ctenidae

Ctenus dubius (Walckenaer, 1805)

  

Ctenidae

Cupiennius bimaculatus (Taczanowski, 1874)

V

 

Ctenidae

Cupiennius foliatus (Cambridge, 1901)

  

Ctenidae

Isoctenus latevittatus (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen nudum

Ctenidae

Phoneutria fera (Perty, 1833)

  

Ctenidae

Phoneutria reidyi (Cambridge, 1897)

  

Cyrtaucheniidae

Fufius n. sp.1

V

 

Deinopidae

Deinopis guianensis (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Dictynidae

Phantyna mandibularis (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Dipluridae

Harmonicon audeae (Maréchal & Marty, 1998)

  

Dipluridae

Harmonicon oiapoqueae (Drolshagen & Bäckstam 2011)

  

Dipluridae

Harmonicon rufescens (Cambridge, 1897)

  

Dipluridae

Diplura nigra (Cambridge, 1897)

  

Dipluridae

Ischnothele guianensis (Walkenaer, 1837)

  

Dysderidae

Dysdera bicolor (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Eresidae

Eresus n. sp.1

V

 

Eresidae

Eresus n. sp.2

V

 

Filistatidae

Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz, 1842)

  

Gnaphosidae

Echemographis distincta (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Hersiliidae

Neotama n. sp.1

V

 

Hersiliidae

Ypypuera n. sp.1

V

 

Idiopidae

Idiops opifex (Simon, 1889)

  

Linyphiidae

Ceratinopsis jelskii (Keyserling, 1886)

B

Nomem dubium

Linyphiidae

Meioneta n. sp.1

V

 

Lycosidae

Agalenocosa denisi (Caporiacco, 1947)

  

Lycosidae

Aglaoctenus castaneus (Mello-Leitao, 1942)

V

 

Lycosidae

Aglaoctenus guianensis (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Lycosidae

Trochosa n. sp.1

V

 

Lycosidae

Allocosa n. sp.1

V

 

Lycosidae

Hogna vachoni (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Lycosidae

Hogna ventrilineata (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Lycosidae

Pardosa cayennensis (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Mimetidae

Ero n. sp.1

V

 

Mimetidae

Ero n. sp.2

V

 

Mimetidae

Gelanor mabelae (Chickering, 1947)

V

 

Mimetidae

Gelanor zonatus (Koch 1845)

  

Miturgidae

Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz, 1847)

B

 

Miturgidae

Teminius insularis (Lucas, 1857)

B

 

Nephilidae

Nephila clavipes (Linnaeus, 1767)

  

Nephilidae

Nephila cornuta (Pallas, 1772)

  

Nephilidae

Nephilengys cruentata (Fabricius, 1775)

  

Nesticidae

Nesticus citrinus (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Ochyroceratidae

Ochyrocera caeruleoamethystina (Lopez & Lopez, 1997)

  

Oonopidae

Neoxyphinus hispidus (Dumitresco & Georgescu, 1987)

V

 

Oonopidae

Oonops n. sp.1

V

 

Oxyopidae

Hamataliwa barroana (Keyserling 1887)

  

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes haemorrhous (Mello-Leitao, 1929)

  

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes maripae (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes masculinus (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Oxyopidae

Oxyopes salticus (Hentz, 1845)

V

 

Oxyopidae

Peucetia macroglossa (Mello-Leitão, 1929)

  

Oxyopidae

Tapinillus longipes (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Paratropididae

Paratropis papilligera (Cambridge, 1896)

  

Philodromidae

Cleocnemis punctulata (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Philodromidae

Philodromus cayanus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Pholcidae

Artema atlanta (Walckenaer, 1837)

  

Pholcidae

Litoporus saul (Huber, 2000)

  

Pholcidae

Mesabolivar cyaneus (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Pholcidae

Metagonia auberti (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Pholcidae

Physocyclus globosus (Taczanowski, 1874)

B

 

Pholcidae

Smeringopus pallidus (Blackwall, 1858)

B

 

Pisauridae

Architis spinipes (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Pisauridae

Architis tenuis (Simon, 1898)

B

 

Pisauridae

Dolomedes elegans (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Pisauridae

Thaumasia benoisti (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Pisauridae

Thaumasia marginella (Koch, 1847)

  

Pisauridae

Tinus nigrinus (Cambridge, 1901)

  

Prodidomidae

Zimiris doriai (Simon, 1882)

B

 

Salticidae

Acragas flavescens (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Albionella guianensis (Caporiacco 1954)

V

 

Salticidae

Alcmena trifasciata (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Amycus ectipus (Simon, 1900)

V

 

Salticidae

Amycus effeminatus (Caporiacco 1954)

V

 

Salticidae

Amycus favicomis (Simon, 1900)

V

 

Salticidae

Amycus patellaris (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Anasaitis canosa (Walckenaer, 1837)

  

Salticidae

Beata rustica (Peckham & Peckham, 1895)

  

Salticidae

Breda apicalis (Simon, 1901)

V

 

Salticidae

Capidava variegata (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Chinoscopus gracilis (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Chinoscopus maculipes (Crane, 1943)

  

Salticidae

Chira guianensis (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Chira simoni (Galiano, 1961)

V

 

Salticidae

Chira spinipes (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Chira thysbe (Simon, 1902)

V

 

Salticidae

Chira trivittata (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Chirothecia crassipes (Taczanowski, 1878)

  

Salticidae

Chloridusa n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Chloridusa n. sp.2

V

 

Salticidae

Cobanus n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Corythalia heliophanina (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Corythalia luctuosa (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Corythalia tropica (Mello-Leitão, 1939)

  

Salticidae

Corythalia variegata (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Corythalia walecki (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Cyllodania fasciata (Caporiacco 1954)

V

 

Salticidae

Cyllistella n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Dendryphantes coccineocinctus (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Dendryphantes spinosissimus (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Euophrys ambigua (Koch, 1846)

  

Salticidae

Eustiromastix bahiensis (Galiano, 1979)

V

 

Salticidae

Eustiromastix guianae (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Eustiromastix major (Simon, 1902)

  

Salticidae

Fluda n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Freya decorata (Koch, 1846)

  

Salticidae

Freya disparipes (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Freya grisea (Cambridge, 1901)

V

 

Salticidae

Freya perelegans (Simon, 1902)

V

 

Salticidae

Frigga coronigera (Koch, 1846)

V

 

Salticidae

Frigga kessleri (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Habronattus paratus (Peckham & Peckham, 1896)

V

 

Salticidae

Helvetia cancrimana (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Hypaeus flavipes (Simon, 1900)

V

 

Salticidae

Hypaeus porcatus (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Hypaeus taczanowskii (Mello-Leitão, 1948)

  

Salticidae

Kalcerrytus n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Kalcerrytus kikkri (Galiano, 2000)

  

Salticidae

Kalcerrytus nauticus (Galiano, 2000)

V

 

Salticidae

Lurio lethierryi (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Lurio splendidissimus (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Lurio solennis (Koch, 1846)

  

Salticidae

Lyssomanes amazonicus (Peckham & Wheeler, 1889)

B

 

Salticidae

Lyssomanes elegans (Cambridge, 1900)

  

Salticidae

Lysomanes ipanemae (Galiano, 1980)

  

Salticidae

Lyssomanes longipes (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Lyssomanes parallelus (Peckham & Wheeler, 1889)

  

Salticidae

Lyssomanes unicolor (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Maeota dichrura (Simon, 1901)

V

 

Salticidae

Mago acutidens (Simon, 1900)

  

Salticidae

Mago barbatus (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Mago chickeringi (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Mago dentichelis (Crane, 1949)

  

Salticidae

Mago fasciatus (Mello-Leitao, 1940)

V

 

Salticidae

Mago fulvithorax (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Mago longidens (Simon, 1900)

  

Salticidae

Mago silvae (Crane, 1943)

  

Salticidae

Menemerus bivittatus (Dufour, 1831)

V

 

Salticidae

Myrmarachne obscura (Taczanowski, 1872)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Nagaina modesta (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Noegus bidens (Simon, 1900)

  

Salticidae

Noegus fuscimanus (Simon, 1900)

V

 

Salticidae

Noegus petrusewiczi (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Noegus rufus (Simon, 1900)

V

 

Salticidae

Noegus n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Nycerella n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Pachomius dybowskii (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Parnaenus cyanidens (Koch, 1846)

V

 

Salticidae

Phiale crocea (Koch, 1846)

V

 

Salticidae

Phiale cruentata (Walckenaer, 1837)

  

Salticidae

Phiale rubriceps (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Phiale septemguttata (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Phiale gratiosa (Koch, 1846)

  

Salticidae

Phiale guttata ( Koch, 1846)

V

 

Salticidae

Phiale niveoguttata (Cambridge, 1901)

  

Salticidae

Phiale simplicicava (Cambridge, 1901)

V

 

Salticidae

Phiale virgo (Koch, 1846)

  

Salticidae

Phidippus guianensis (Caporiaco, 1947)

  

Salticidae

Phidippus triangulifer (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Platycryptus magnus (Peckham & Peckham, 1894)

V

 

Salticidae

Plexippus paykulli (Audouin, 1826)

V

 

Salticidae

Psecas bubo (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Pseudopartona ornata (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Rhene jelskii (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Romitia n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Rudra wagae (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Salticidae

Salticus albosignatus (Taczanowski, 1849)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Salticus bidens (Taczanowski, 1872)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Salticus cabanisi (Taczanowski, 1872)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Salticus cayanus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus crassipes (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomen dubium

Salticidae

Salticus cylindricus (Walckenaer, 1837)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus deplanatus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus dryocopinus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus elaterinus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus emaciatus (Walckenaer, 1837)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus fulvatus (Fabricius, 1896)

  

Salticidae

Salticus hamatinus (Taczanowski, 1849)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus longimanus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus mandibularis (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus marmottani (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus maronicus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus miniaceus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus minutus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus nigerrimus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus olivacens (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus ornatus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus paederinus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus platycephalus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus quadriguttatus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus radoszkowskii (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus rubescens (Walckenaer, 1837)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus ruficeps (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus salutanus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus sericeus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus sexfasciatus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus simoni (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus solskii (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus superciliatus (Walckenaer, 1837)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus tenebrosus (Walckenaer, 1837)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus tenuis (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus trematus (Walckenaer, 1837)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus tricinctus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus uassanus (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Salticus verrauxi (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Sarinda atrata (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Sarinda cayennensis (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Sarinda longula (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Scopocira melanops (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Siloca septentrionalis (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Salticidae

Soesilarishius n. sp.1

V

 

Salticidae

Soesilarishius n. sp.2

V

 

Salticidae

Synemosyna myrmeciaeformis (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Synemosyna subtilis (Taczanowski, 1871)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Synemosyna lucasi (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Thiodina branicki (Taczanowski, 1871)

  

Salticidae

Thiodina melanogaster (Mello-Leitão, 1917)

V

 

Salticidae

Thiodina pallida (Koch, 1846)

  

Salticidae

Tutelina iridea (Caporiacco 1954)

 

Nomem dubium

Salticidae

Viciria chabanaudi (Fage, 1923)

  

Salticidae

Wedoquella n. sp.1

  

Salticidae

Zuniga magna (Peckham & Peckham, 1892)

B

 

Scytodidae

Scytodes fusca (Walckenaer, 1837)

  

Scytodidae

Scytodes lineatipes (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Scytodidae

Scytodes longipes (Lucas, 1844)

  

Senoculidae

Senoculus canaliculatus (Cambridge, 1902)

B

 

Senoculidae

Senoculus maronicus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Sparassidae

Guadana n. sp.1

V

 

Sparassidae

Olios cayanus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Sparassidae

Olios nigriventris (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Sparassidae

Olios quinquelineatus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Sparassidae

Olios roeweri (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Sparassidae

Olios rubripes (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Sparassidae

Olios velox (Simon, 1880)

V

 

Sparassidae

Polybetes pythagoricus (Holmberg, 1875)

  

Sparassidae

Pseudosparianthis megalopalpa (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Sparassidae

Sampaiosia crulsi (Mello-Leitão, 1930)

V

 

Sparassidae

Sparianthina rufescens (Mello-Leitão, 1940)

V

 

Sparassidae

Sparianthis amazonica (Simon, 1880)

V

 

Sparassidae

Thomasettia n. sp.1

V

 

Sparassidae

Vindullus gracilipes (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Synotaxidae

Synotaxus n. sp.1

V

 

Tetragnathidae

Azilia vachoni (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Tetragnathidae

Chrysometa minuta (Keyserling, 1883)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge acuminata (Cambridge, 1889)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge argyra (Walckenaer, 1849)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge branickii (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge funebris (Mello-Leitão, 1930)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge pulcherrima (Keyserling, 1865)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge saphes (Chamberlain & Ivie, 1936)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge taczanowskii (Marx, 1893)

  

Tetragnathidae

Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer, 1841)

  

Tetragnathidae

Metabus ocellatus (Keyserling, 1864)

B

 

Tetragnathidae

Opas caudacuta (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Tetragnathidae

Opas lugens, (Cambridge 1896)

  

Tetragnathidae

Tetragnatha filiformata (Roewer, 1942)

  

Tetragnathidae

Tetragnatha gibbula (Roewer, 1942)

  

Theraphosidae

Acanthopelma beccarii (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Theraphosidae

Acanthoscurria simoensi (Vol, 2000)

  

Theraphosidae

Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758)

  

Theraphosidae

Avicularia avicularia variegata (Cambridge, 1896)

  

Theraphosidae

Avicularia metallica (Ausserer, 1875)

  

Theraphosidae

Avicularia holmbergi (Thorell, 1890)

  

Theraphosidae

Avicularia lycosiformis (Koch, 1846)

 

Nomen dubium

Theraphosidae

Avicularia surinamensis (Strand, 1907)

  

Theraphosidae

Ephebopus cyanognathus (West & Marshall, 2000)

  

Theraphosidae

Ephebopus murinus (Walckenaer, 1837)

  

Theraphosidae

Ephebopus rufescens (West & Marshall, 2000)

  

Theraphosidae

Hapalopus guianensis (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Theraphosidae

Magulla Janeira (Keyserling, 1891)

  

Theraphosidae

Neostenotarsus (Tesmoingt & Schmidt, 2002)

  

Theraphosidae

Tapinauchenius gigas (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Theraphosidae

Tapinauchenius violaceus (Mello-Leitão, 1930)

  

Theraphosidae

Teraphosa blondi (Latreille, 1804)

  

Theraphosidae

Vitalius vellutinus (Mello-Leitao, 1923)

  

Theridiidae

Achaearanea hieroglyphica (Mello-Leitão, 1940)

  

Theridiidae

Anelosimus chickeringi (Levi, 1956)

B

 

Theridiidae

Anelosimus eximius (Keyserling, 1884)

B

 

Theridiidae

Anelosimus jucundus (Cambridge, 1896)

B

 

Theridiidae

Anelosimus nigrescens (Keyserling 1884)

B

 

Theridiidae

Anelosimus rupununi (Levi, 1956)

B

 

Theridiidae

Anelosimus studiosus (Hentz, 1850)

B

 

Theridiidae

Argyrodes benedicti (Lopez 1988)

  

Theridiidae

Argyrodes coactatus (Lopez 1988)

  

Theridiidae

Argyrodes elevatus (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Theridiidae

Argyrodes nephilae (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Theridiidae

Chrysso albomaculata (Cambridge, 1882)

  

Theridiidae

Chrysso pulcherrima (Mello-Leitão, 1917)

B

 

Theridiidae

Coleosoma acutiventer (Keyserling, 1884)

B

 

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea hirta (Taczanowski, 1873)

  

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea migrans (Keyserling, 1884)

  

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea pusillana (Roewer, 1942)

  

Theridiidae

Cryptachaea rostrata (Cambridge, 1864)

  

Theridiidae

Dipoena n. sp.1

V

 

Theridiidae

Dipoena n. sp.2

V

 

Theridiidae

Episinus n. sp.1

  

Theridiidae

Faiditus americanus (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Theridiidae

Faiditus caudatus (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Theridiidae

Faiditus dracus (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936)

B

 

Theridiidae

Faiditus globosus (Keyserling, 1884)

B

 

Theridiidae

Neospintharus triangularis (Taczanowski, 1873)

B

 

Theridiidae

Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Koch, 1841)

B

 

Theridiidae

Rhomphaea paradoxa (Taczanowski, 1896)

B

 

Theridiidae

Steatoda ancorata (Holmberg, 1876)

B

 

Theridiidae

Nesticodes rufipes (Lucas, 1846)

  

Theridiidae

Theridion incertissimum (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Theridiidae

Theridion rubrolineatum (Taczanowski, 1874)

 

Nomem dubium

Theridiidae

Theridula gonygaster (Simon, 1873)

B

 

Theridiosomatidae

Naatlo splendida (Taczanowski, 1879)

B

 

Theridiosomatidae

Plato juberthiei (Lopez, 1996)

  

Thomisidae

Acentroscelus guianensis (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Acentroscelus nigrianus (Mello-Leitão, 1929)

  

Thomisidae

Acentroscelus n. sp.1

V

 

Thomisidae

Bucranium taurifrons (Cambridge, 1881)

  

Thomisidae

Bucranium n. sp.1

V

 

Thomisidae

Diaea n. sp.1

V

 

Thomisidae

Epicadus heterogaster (Guérin, 1829)

  

Thomisidae

Epicadinus trispinosus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Erissus truncatifrons (Simon, 1895)

  

Thomisidae

Misumena citreoides (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Misumena maronica (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Misumena nigripes (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Misumenops guianensis (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Monaeses lucasi (Taczanowski, 1872)

V

 

Thomisidae

Onoculus echinatus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Onoculus pentagonus (Keyserling, 1880)

V

 

Thomisidae

Platyarachne episcopalis (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Runcinioides argenteus (Mello-Leitão, 1929)

  

Thomisidae

Stephanopis quinquetuberculata (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Strophius n. sp.1

V

 

Thomisidae

Synema aequinoctiale (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Synema bipunctatum (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Synema bishopi (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Synema maculatovittatum (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus candefactus (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus geayi (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus grandis (Mello-Leitão, 1929)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus hystrix (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus intentus (Cambridge, 1892)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus jelskii (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus littoralis (Keyserling, 1880)

  

Thomisidae

Tmarus obesus (Mello-Leitão, 1929)

  

Thomisidae

Tobias albovittatus (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Thomisidae

Tobias corticatus (Mello-Leitão, 1917)

  

Thomisidae

Tobias cornutus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Tobias taczanowskii (Roewer, 1951)

V

 

Thomisidae

Tobias trituberculatus (Taczanowski, 1872)

  

Thomisidae

Uraarachne vittata (Caporiacco 1954)

  

Titanoecidae

Goeldia patellaris (Simon, 1892)

  

Trechaleidae

Enna jullieni (Simon & Duss, 1898)

  

Trechaleidae

Paradossenus longipes (Taczanowski, 1874)

  

Trechaleidae

Rhoicinus n. sp.1

V

 

Trechaleidae

Syntrechalea reimoseri (Caporiacco, 1947)

V

 

Trechaleidae

Trechalea n. sp.1

V

 

Trechaleidae

Trechalea n. sp.2

V

 

Trechaleidae

Trechalea n. sp.3

V

 

Uloboridae

Miagrammopes n. sp.1

V

 

Uloboridae

Philiponnella semiplumosa (Simon, 1893)

  

Uloboridae

Zosis geniculata (Olivier, 1789)

  

Zodariidae

Tristichops coerulescens (Taczanowski, 1874)

 

Nomem dubium

The numbers assigned to the M-S indicate only the order they were examined. B means that this species was not taken into consideration by the former list but was found published in the literature by Brescovit et al. 2011 and therefore added. V means that this species is new for French Guiana and found during the sampling expeditions organized for this study.

The number of M-S found (692 M-S for 1617 spiders sampled) is similar to what was found in Bolivia and Peru; respectively 329 species out of 1109 specimens sampled and 635 species for 1821 specimens (reviewed in Coddington et al. 2009), but represents ten times more than the number of spider species found in temperate forests (Coddington et al. 1996) and much more than found in Tanzania (170 species for 9096 specimens sampled) (Sørensen et al. 2002) and Malaysia (578 species for 6999 specimens collected) (Floren and Deeleman-Reinhold 2005) indicating the high diversity of the Amazonian areas. In Guyana, a neighbourhood country of French Guiana, only 351 species were found out of 5965 specimens collected (Coddington et al. 2009). Nonetheless, these comparisons have to be made with caution due to differences in sampling protocols including different techniques, efforts and the number of different habitats studied.

It is interesting to observe that the most diverse families are representative of most of the main feeding guilds of spiders (Dias et al. 2010; Cardoso et al. 2011): Salticidae with 153 species belong to the diurnal hunting spiders, the Araneidae with 113 species belong to the orb weavers, the Thomisidae with 39 identified species are representative of the ambush spiders, the Theridiidae with 33 species represent the entangled web weavers, the Corinnidae with 26 recognized species belong to the nocturnal hunting spiders and finally the Theraphosidae (the most diverse and numerous Mygalomorphae representative) with 17 species, ambush from their burrows. Nevertheless, the Ctenidae (15 species) and Trechaleidae (7 species) are probably much more diverse than we have found up until now. In this study, we collected about 60 different M-S belonging to the first family and 20 for the second.

The rate of Endemism is quite high, as noted by Caporiacco (1954) with 192 species out of 357 (53.8%) never having been found outside French Guiana. In this study we cannot accurately evaluate endemism because of the bias made during the identification: most of the named species are fully identified because they were previously discovered and described from somewhere else, where spider studies were performed over a longer period of time. In any case, the number of endemic species has to be handled carefully here due to the poor comparison possible due to few studies achieved in the neighbouring regions (Venezuela, Surinam, Guyana and Amapá and Pará States in Brazil).

The accumulation curve shows a constant increase of the number of M-S (Table 4 and Figure 1) and does not reach a plateau, even on the calculated tendency curve. This plateau normally shows the total number of species present in a site or a region. Here, we cannot determine yet this number from the curve which indicates that we have to sample many more individuals to arrive at this plateau.
Table 4

Sampling sites used in the accumulation curve

Sites

Number of individuals

Number of M-S

Number of « new » M-S in each site

Nouragues (dry season)

375

270

270

Crique Baggot

24

23

11

La Trinité

439

242

132

Gentry plots (Laussat Ouest

76

42

25

Gentry plots (Petite Montagne Tortue, Régina)

97

58

52

Saül

482

347

164

Savane roche Virginie

124

50

38

Total

1617

 

692

Sites were written in the chronological order they were sampled. The fourth column indicates the number of M-S not found in the previous sampled sites, starting from the top. Therefore they are considered as “new” for the sampling.

Figure 1

Accumulation curve showing the slope of the increase of M-S numbers by the number of specimens collected. The tendency curve (light blue) was added, including its equation.

From the estimators, the minimum richness is evaluated at 1241 species by the Chao 1 estimator and the Jackknife estimator calculated 1680 (+/−112) species. These results suggest we only know about one third (515 species identified out of around 1,500 species estimated) of the local spider fauna, which places French Guiana as a region of high diversity of spiders but also in a region where sampling and identification efforts have to be substantially increased to gain a sufficient knowledge in order to be able to use spider as a biodiversity assessment tool.

Now, although the aim of having a list of spiders to start with is reached, those results have to be taken as a first step in the arachnological biodiversity assessment of French Guiana and not as an exhaustive catalog of the spiders inhabiting the area. At each sampled site, although an inclusive sampling protocol was applied, the large number of singletons (between 50 to 70% of the individuals) indicates clearly that those sites are under-sampled (Coddington et al. 2009). A sampling effort index comparing the ratios of abundance to species (N/S) (Colwell and Coddington 1994) gives a result of 54 (9096/170) for Tanzania, 12 for Malaysia, 17 for Guyana, 2.87 for Pérù and 3.37 for Bolivia. In our study, the ratio is 2.34 (1617/692) which shows, in comparison to the other studies both that French Guianan sites are under-sampled and that the diversity is locally high; being comparable to Bolivia and Perù. Tanzania’s study exhibits a high ratio because the sampling was intensive and also because the sites there were poorer in term of diversity.

Moreover, each site should be sampled at different times of the year as the wet and the dry seasons exhibit radical changes in environmental conditions which trigger a change in the communities of animals. In addition, some specific habitats such as canopies, inselbergs (granitic hill specific vegetation) or liana forests were not well sampled and might hold some unknown spider species too. Therefore, in order to assess the total species richness of the spiders of French Guiana, the sampling effort has to be substantially increased, in order that further quantitative studies applying more advanced methods to define the local fauna (Feest & Cardoso 2012). Applying rigorous sampling protocols can be widely applied for local biodiversity assessment using spiders.

Conclusions

This study sets a starting point for the spider richness described and expected for French Guiana, in order to be able to use spiders as a “bioindication tool”, as recommended by several commissions and organizations, for future biodiversity assessments.

After a literature review and several sampling excursions, the total number of spider species found in French Guiana is now at 515. This revision added 151 new species and nine new families for this region, which make a more credible start for upcoming spider studies. Many other M-S were found but not described as species yet. This study shows that few collections in Guianese forestry habitats brought many new species to the list for French Guiana, which suggests both that the area holds a high diversity of spiders and that this diversity was poorly explored.

The accumulation curve does not yet show the maximum of species number inhabiting this equatorial region but the species richness indices shows the tropical rainforest of French Guiana would host between 1241 and 1792 spider species. They also indicate that more sampling is necessary to complement our current knowledge in this regard. Finally, we can speculate that sampling specific periods (dry season and wet season) and specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg, cambrouze would bring many unknown spider species.

Methods

Published data compilation

The official National Natural Patrimony Inventory (INPN: http://inpn.mnhn.fr) currently lists 138 Araneae species for French Guiana. This list was checked and augmented by a complete survey of the literature from a database of Neotropical spiders (Brescovit et al. 2011). Species names were checked with reference to the world catalog of spiders 13.0 (Platnick 2012) and Prószyński’s (2012) catalog of world.

Study sites

Sampling was performed by the authors in 12 sites of forest in French Guiana (Figure 2) at different periods during 3 years (2009–2011), to complement the number of species found in the existing literature. The name of the sites are given to the forest area were samples were collected. All of these sites are undisturbed forestry habitats. These sites were chosen for insect collecting expeditions organized by INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) (the two Gentry sites), by the CNRS (Kaw) by the first author (Crique Baggot, Savane Roche Virginie, Piste des compagnons), and the remainder by the SEAG (Société Entomologique des Antilles et de la Guyane) for all the other sites.
Figure 2

Map of French Guiana with the sampling sites.

The sites are located in different part of French Guiana covering almost all the region except the extreme southeast and the west (Figure 2), where most samples of Caporiacco’s study were conducted (Caporiacco 1954). At each site several habitats (such as river side, swamps and terra firme) were sampled (Table 1 for details), offering altogether a good geographical coverage of the spiders found in French Guiana.

Sampling protocol

In order to collect the maximum number of spiders from every ecological stratum of each habitat, different active techniques and innovative methods such as traps were used (Vedel et al. 2011). Active techniques consist of sampling spiders using a sieve for filtering the soil and the leaf litter, a triangular sweep net for catching spiders inhabiting the low vegetation from 10 cm to 1.5 m, a beating tray to collect individuals living from 1.5 m to 2.5 m in the higher vegetation and by hand to collect visible spiders on trunk or on silk webs. The innovative methods were Malaise traps and window pane traps, normally used to catch insects, which were recognized as efficient at collecting spiders (Vedel et al. 2011). Because of the heterogeneity of the sampling and the initial aim of the study, which was only to increase the number of spider species found, rigorous standardized protocol (Vedel and Lalagüe 2013) was applied only at only the sites Nouragues (wet season), Nouragues (dry season), Crique Baggot, La Trinité, Saül and Savane Roche Virginie. The sampling effort is an equal mix of the active techniques described above where one unit represents one hour of an active sampling technique. For the two Gentry plots spiders were collected only by traps (six window pane traps and six Malaise traps on each site) over a six months period (dry season). At the Mont Itoupe site, six window pane traps and six Malaise traps over one month (dry season) were used to collect spiders. At the Piste des compagnons site, two Malaise traps were placed over a two month period (dry season). Therefore, because of this non-standardization of sampling effort and methods, only a global estimation of total number of species was statistically feasible and no advanced biodiversity studies on spiders (Feest & Cardoso 2012; Cardoso et al. 2009) were possible.

Storage and identification

Spiders were stored in labeled tubes containing 70% ethanol. Material was identified first as Morphospecies (M-S) by the authors and when possible, identified at the species level by them. Otherwise, material was sent to family specialists (see Acknowledgments) for a complete identification or description. Juveniles were excluded from the list. Specimens are noted as “sp. n” only when recognized as a species new to science by a specialist of the family who will describe it in a further publication.

Data analysis

An accumulation curve plotting the number of collected individuals by the number of M-S found was drawn to assess the species richness found in French Guiana. This accumulation curve was drawn with only seven of the sampling sites, because a quantitative protocol accompanied with photography of each specimen were applied only at those sites (Vedel and Lalagüe 2013). Although the number of sites (seven) for any statistical study is low, a rough estimation of the total number of spider species found can be nevertheless computed with a high standard deviation to consider. A logarithmic tendency curve (Colwell and Coddington 1994) (and its equation) was also drawn by Excel open office to derive the rate of the M-S number increase from our samplings (Table 4 and Figure 1).

In addition, to estimate the total species richness of French Guiana we computed, from our sampling, the two most widely used estimators: the Chao 1 (Chao 2005, Gotelli and Colwell 2010) was manually calculated, and the Jackknife computed online (http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/software/specrich.html) (Burnham and Overton 1979). Chao 1 is a minimum estimator of the species richness particularly adapted when the number of singletons and doubletons are high, and therefore well adapted to our case. Jackknife allows a non-biased estimation of the richness which is complementary of the first estimator used.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The first author would like to thank the SEAG (especially P-H. Dalens and S. Fernandez) for setting up most of the sampling trips contributing to this study, all the specialists which identified and provided specimens for this study (Courtial C., Edwards G.B., Gonzales A.B., Huber B., Lehtinen P.T., Lise A.A., Maréchal P., Santos A.J., Ysnel F.) and Greg Lamarre and Stéphane Brûlé for constructive discussions. We are indebted to Dr. Christopher David Williams who kindly corrected the English of this article. The authors thank four reviewers who improved substancially the manuscript with their comments. We also thank the following people for allowing and partly organizing the sampling trip : Maël Dewynter, ONF conservator of the natural reserve of Nouragues, Philippe Gaucher, Technical director of the Nouragues ; Marguerite Delaval, ONF conservator of the natural reserve of la Trinité ; for the mission in Mount Itoupé, Jean-Claude Duss, director of Club Med ; Frédéric Mortier, director of Parc Amazonien de Guyane, Cécile Guitet chief of patrimoine naturel du Parc Amazonien and Nicolas Surugue, in charge of ecological mission. The two last authors thank the NPq (toADB) for financial support. This work has benefited from “Investissement d’Avenir” grants managed by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (CEBA, ref. ANR-10-LABX-0025; TULIP, ref. ANR-10-LABX-41).

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Laboratoire d'entomologie Entobios, 5 Bis rue François Thomas
(2)
Laboratoire d’écologie intégrative, UMR ECOFOG, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane
(3)
Laboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan
(4)
CNRS, EFA, UMR 5174 EDB (Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique), Université Paul Sabatier

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Copyright

© Vedel et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.