- Research
- Open Access
- Published:

# Multidirectional hybrid algorithm for the split common fixed point problem and application to the split common null point problem

*SpringerPlus*
**volume 5**, Article number: 2009 (2016)

## Abstract

In this article, a new multidirectional monotone hybrid iteration algorithm for finding a solution to the split common fixed point problem is presented for two countable families of quasi-nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems are proved. The application of the result is to consider the split common null point problem of maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems for finding a solution of the split common null point problem are derived. This iteration algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of iterative sequence. The results of this paper improve and extend the recent results of Takahashi and Yao (Fixed Point Theory Appl 2015:87, 2015) and many others .

## Introduction and preliminaries

Let \(H_1\) and \(H_2\) be two real Hilbert spaces, let \(D\subset H_1\) and \(Q\subset H_2\) be nonempty closed, and convex subsets, let \(A : H_1\rightarrow H_2\) be a bounded linear operator. Then the split feasibility problem (Censor and Elfving 1994) is to find \(z \in H_1\) such that \(z \in D \cap A^{-1}Q\). Defining \(U = A^*(I-P_Q)A\) in the split feasibility problem, we see that \(U : H_1\rightarrow H_1\) is an inverse strongly monotone operator (Alsulami and Takahashi 2014), where \(A^*\) is the adjoint operator of *A* and \(P_Q\) is the metric projection of \(H_2\) onto *Q*. Furthermore, if \(D\cap A^{-1}Q\) is nonempty, then

where \(\lambda > 0\) and \(P_D\) is the metric projection of \(H_1\) onto *D*. Using such results regarding nonlinear operators and fixed points, many authors have studied the split feasibility problem in Hilbert spaces; see, for instance, Alsulami and Takahashi (2014), Byrne et al. (2012), Censor and Segal (2009), Moudafi (2010), Takahashi et al. (2015). Recently, Takahashi (2014) and Takahashi (2015) extended an equivalent relation as in (1) in Hilbert spaces to Banach spaces and then obtained strong convergence theorems for finding a solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces. Very recently, using the hybrid method by Nakajo and Takahashi (2003) in mathematical programming, Alsulami et al. (2015) proved strong convergence theorems for finding a solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces; see also Ohsawa and Takahashi (2003), Solodov and Svaiter (2000). Takahashi (2015) also obtained a result for finding a solution of the split feasibility problem in Banach space from the idea of the shrinking projection method by Takahashi et al. (2008). Takahashi and Yao (2015) presented the following hybrid iteration algorithm in a Hilbert space *H*: for \(x_1 \in H\),

They proved the following strong convergence theorem:

###
**Theorem TY**

*Let *
*H*
*be a Hilbert space and let*
*F*
*be a uniformly convex and smooth Banach space. Let*
\(J_F\)
*be the duality mapping on*
*F*. *Let*
*A*
*and*
*B*
*be maximal monotone operators of*
*H*
*into*
\(2^H\)
*and*
*F*
*into*
\(2^{F^*}\). *such that*
\(A^{-1}0 \ne \emptyset\)
*and*
\(B^{-1}0\ne \emptyset\), *respectively. Let*
\(J_\lambda\)
*be the resolvent of*
*A*
*for*
\(\lambda >0\)
*and let*
\(Q_\mu\)
*be the metric resolvent of*
*B*
*for*
\(\mu >0\). *Let*
\(T : H \rightarrow F\)
*be a bounded linear operator such that*
\(T\ne 0\)
*and let*
\(T^*\)
*be the adjoint operator of*
*T*. *Suppose that*
\(A^{-1}0\cap T^{-1}(B^{-1})0 \ne \emptyset\). *Let*
\(x_1 \in H\)
*and let*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*be a sequence generated by (TY), where*
\(\{\alpha _n\subset [0,1]\}\)
*and*
\(\{\lambda _n\}, \{\mu _n\}\)
*satisfy the condition such that*

*for some*
\(a,b,c \in R\). *Then*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*converges strongly to a point*
\(z_0=P_{A^{-1}0\cap T^{-1}(B^{-1}0)}x_1\).

In this article, a new multidirectional monotone hybrid iteration algorithm for finding a solution to the split common fixed point problem is presented for two countable families of quasi-nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems are proved. The application of the result is to consider the split common null point problem of maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces. Strong convergence theorems for finding a solution of the split common null point problem are derived. This iteration algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of iterative sequence.

Let *E* be a real Banach space with norm \(\parallel \cdot \parallel\) and let \(E^*\) be the dual space of *E*. We denote the value of \(y^* \in E^*\) at \(x\in E\) by \(\langle x,y^*\rangle\). A Banach space *E* is uniformly convex if for any two sequences \(\{x_n\}\) and \(\{y_n\}\) in *E* such that

\(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\Vert x_n -y_n\Vert =0\) holds. A uniformly convex Banach space is reflexive.

The duality mapping *J* from *E* into \(2^{E^*}\) is defined by

for every \(x\in E\). Let \(U=\{x\in E : \parallel x\parallel =1\}\). The norm of *E* is said to be Gateaux differentiable if for each \(x,y\in U\), the limit

exists. In the case, *E* is called smooth. We know that *E* is smooth if and only if *J* is a single- valued mapping of *E* into \(E^*\). We also know that *E* is reflexive if and only if *J* is surjective, and *E* is strictly convex if and only if *J* is one-to-one. Therefore, if *E* is a smooth, strictly convex and reflexive Banach space, then *J* is a single-valued bijection and in this case, the inverse mapping \(J^{-1}\) coincides with the duality mapping \(J_*\) on \(E^*\). For more details, see Takahashi (2009) and Takahashi (2000).

Let *C* be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of a strictly convex and reflexive Banach space *E*. Then we know that for any \(x\in E\), there exists a unique element \(z\in C\) such that \(\parallel x-z\parallel \le \parallel x-y \parallel\) for all \(y\in C\). Putting \(z=P_Cx\), we call \(P_C\) the metric projection of *E* onto *C*.

###
**Definition 1**

Let *E* be a metric space, let \(T: D(T)\rightarrow R(T)\) be a mapping with the domain *D*(*T*) and the range *R*(*T*). The mapping *T* is said to be quasi-nonexpansive if

where *F*(*T*) is the nonempty fixed point set of *T*.

###
**Definition 2**

Let *E* be a smooth Banach space, let \(S: D(T)\rightarrow R(T)\) be a mapping with the domain *D*(*T*) and the range *R*(*T*). The mapping *S* is said to be second-type quasi-nonexpansive, if

where *F*(*S*) is the nonempty fixed point set of *T*.

###
**Definition 3**

Let *E*, *F* be two normed spaces and *T* be a linear operator from *E* into *F*. The adjoint operator \(T^*: F^*\rightarrow E^*\) of *T* is defined by

where \(E^*\) and \(F^*\) are the adjoint spaces of *E* and *F*, respectively.

The adjoint spaces and adjoint operators are very important in the theory of functional analysis and applications. Not only is it an important theoretical subject but it is also a very useful tool in the functional analysis and topological theory.

###
**Definition 4**

Let *E* be a Banach space, let *C* be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of *E*. Let \(\{T_n\}\) be sequence of mappings from *C* into itself with nonempty common fixed point set \(F=\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(T_n)\). The \(\{T_n\}\) is said to be uniformly closed if for any convergent sequence \(\{z_n\} \subset C\) such that \(\Vert T_nz_n-z_n\Vert \rightarrow 0\) as \(n\rightarrow \infty\), the limit of \(\{z_n\}\) belong to *F*.

## Main results

###
**Lemma 5**

*Let *
*H*
*be a Hilbert space, let*
*C*
*be a closed convex subset of*
*H*, *and let*
\(\{T_n\}\)
*be a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings from*
*C*
*into itself. Then the common fixed point set*
*F*
*is closed and convex.*

###
*Proof*

Let \(p_n \in F\) and \(p_n\rightarrow p\) as \(n\rightarrow \infty\), we have

as \(n\rightarrow \infty\). Since \(\{T_n\}\) is uniformly closed, we know that \(p \in F\), therefore *F* is closed. Next we show that *F* is also convex. For any \(x,y \in F\), let \(z=tx+(1-t)y\) for any \(t \in (0,1)\), we have

for all *n*. This implies \(z \in F\), therefore *F* is convex. This completes the proof. \(\square\)

###
**Lemma 6**

*Let*
*E*
*be a smooth Banach space, let*
*C*
*be a closed convex subset of*
*E*, *and let*
\(\{S_n\}\)
*be a uniformly closed family of countable second-type quasi-nonexpansive mappings from*
*C*
*into itself. Then the common fixed point set*
*F*
*is closed and convex.*

###
*Proof*

Let \(p_n \in F\) and \(p_n\rightarrow p\) as \(n\rightarrow \infty\), we have

as \(n\rightarrow \infty\). Since \(\{T_n\}\) is uniformly closed, we know that \(p \in F\), therefore *F* is closed. Next we show that *F* is also convex. For any \(x,y \in F\), let \(z=tx+(1-t)y\) for any \(t \in (0,1)\), we have

From the two inequalities given above, we have that

which implies

Therefore \(\Vert S_nz-z\Vert ^2\le 0\), that is \(\Vert S_nz-z\Vert ^2= 0\), so that \(z\in F.\) Therefore *F* is convex. This completes the proof. \(\square\)

###
**Lemma 7**

(Alber 1996) *Let *
*H*
*be a Hilbert space, let*
*C*
*be a nonempty closed convex subset of*
*H*
*and let*
\(x \in E.\)
*Then*

Next, we present a new hybrid algorithm so-called the multidirectional hybrid algorithm for finding the common fixed point of a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings and a uniformly closed family of countable second-type quasi-nonexpansive mappings.

###
**Theorem 8**

*Let*
*H*
*be a Hilbert space and let*
*E*
*be a uniformly convex and smooth Banach space. Let*
*J*
*be the duality mapping on*
*E*. *Let*
\(\{T_n\}: H\rightarrow H\)
*be a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings with the nonempty common fixed point set*
\(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(T_n)\)
*and*
\(\{S_n\}: E\rightarrow E\)
*be a uniformly closed family of countable second-type quasi-nonexpansive mappings with the nonempty common fixed point sets*
\(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(S_n)\). *Suppose that*
\(F=(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(T_n))\cap (T^{-1}(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(S_n)))\ne \emptyset\). *Let*
\(T : H \rightarrow E\)
*be a bounded linear operator such that*
\(T\ne 0\)
*and let*
\(T^*\)
*be the adjoint operator of*
*T*. *Let*
\(x_{1,i}\in H, i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\)
*and let*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*and*
\(\{z_n\}\)
*be two sequences generated by*

*where*
\(\{r_n\}\)
*satisfy the condition such that*

*for some constants*
*a*, *b*
*and*
\(\lambda \in [0,1]\)
*is a constant. Then the following conclusions hold:*

(1) \(\{x_n\}\) and \(\{z_n\}\)
*converge strongly to a point*
\(w \in F\);

(2) *the limits*
\(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }P_{C_n}x_{1,i}=P_{F}x_{1,i}, \ i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\);

(3) \(w=\sum _{i=1}^{N}\lambda _i \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty } P_{C_n}x_{1,i}\).

###
*Proof*

It is not hard to see that, \(C_n\) is closed and convex for all \(n\ge 0\). Let us show that, \(F\subset C_n\) for all \(n\ge 0\). For any \(z \in F\), we have

So, \(z\in C_n\) , which implies that \(F\subset C_n\) for all \(n\ge 0\).

Let \(u_{n+1,i}=P_{C_n}x_{1,i}\) for all \(n\ge 1, \ i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\). Since *F* is nonempty, closed, and convex, there exist \(p_{1,i}=P_{F}x_{1,i}\) such that

This means that \(\{u_{n,i}\}\) is bounded for all \(i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\).

From \(u_{n+1,i}=P_{C_n}x_{1,i}\) and \(C_{n}\subset C_{n-1}\), we have that

for all \(n\in N\). This implies that \(\{\Vert u_{n,i}-x_1\Vert \}\) is bounded and nondecreasing for all \(i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\). Then there exist the limits of \(\{\Vert u_{n,i}-x_{1,i}\Vert : i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\}\). Put

On the other hand, \(u_{n+m,i}\in C_{n-1},\ i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\), by using Lemma 7, we have, for any positive integer *m*, that

So that \(\{u_{n,i}\}\) is Cauchy sequences in *C* for all \(i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\), therefore there exit two points \(p_i\in C\) such that

That is

Therefore

Since \(x_{n+1} \in C_n\), we have

which implies

From (2), we have, for any \(z\in F\), that

as \(n\rightarrow \infty\). This implies

Since

and the sequence \(\{S_{n}\}\) is uniformly closed, so that

That is

On the other hand, from

we have

This together with (3) implies that

Since

and the sequence \(\{T_n\}\) is uniformly closed, so that

From above two hands, we have \(\sum _{i=1}^{N} \lambda _i p_i\in F\).

Finally, we prove \(p_i=P_{F}x_{1,i}, \ i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\). From Lemma 7, we have

On the other hand, since \(x_{n+1,i}= P_{C_n}x_{1,i}\) and \(F \subset C_n\), for all *n*. Also from Lemma 7, we have

Since

Combining (4), (5) and (6), we know that \(\Vert p_i-x_{1,i}\Vert =\Vert P_{F}x_{1,i}- x_{1,i}\Vert\). Therefore, it follows from the uniqueness of \(P_{F}x_{1,i}\) that \(p_i= P_{F}x_{1,i}\). This completes the proof. \(\square\)

By using Theorem 8 and setting \(N = 1\), we can get the following result.

###
**Theorem 9**

*Let*
*H*
*be a Hilbert space and let*
*E*
*be a uniformly convex and smooth Banach space. Let*
*J*
*be the duality mapping on*
*E*. *Let*
\(\{T_n\}: H\rightarrow H\)
*be a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings with the nonempty common fixed point set*
\(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(T_n)\)
*and*
\(\{S_n\}: E\rightarrow E\)
*be a uniformly closed family of countable second-type quasi-nonexpansive mappings with the nonempty common fixed point sets*
\(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(S_n)\). *Suppose that*
\(F=(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(T_n))\cap (T^{-1}(\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(S_n)))\ne \emptyset\). *Let*
\(T : H \rightarrow E\)
*be a bounded linear operator such that*
\(T\ne 0\)
*and let*
\(T^*\)
*be the adjoint operator of*
*T*. *Let*
\(x_1\in H\)
*and let*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*be a sequence generated by*

*where*
\(\{r_n\}\)
*satisfy the condition such that*

*for some constants*
*a*, *b*. *Then*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*converges strongly to a point*
\(z_0=P_{F}x_1\).

## Application for common null point problem

Let *E* be a Banach space, let *A* be a multi-valued operator from *E* to \(E^*\) with domain \(D(A)=\{z\in E: Az\ne \emptyset \}\) and range \(R(A)=\{z\in E: z\in D(A)\}\). An operator A is said to be monotone if

for each \(x_1, x_2 \in D(A)\) and \(y_1\in Ax_1, y_2\in Ax_2\). A monotone operator A is said to be maximal if it’s graph \(G(A)=\{(x, y) : y \in Ax\}\) is not properly contained in the graph of any other monotone operator. We know that if *A* is a maximal monotone operator, then \(A^{-1}0\) is closed and convex. The following result is also well-known.

###
**Theorem 10**

(Rockafellar 1970). *Let*
*E*
*be a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth Banach space and let*
*A*
*be a monotone operator from*
*E*
*to*
\(E^{*}\). *Then*
*A*
*is maximal if and only if*
\(R(J + rA)=E^*\). *for all*
\(r>0\).

Let *E* be a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth Banach space, and let *A* be a maximal monotone operator from *E* to \(E^*\). Using Theorem 10 and strict convexity of *E*, we obtain that for every \(r>0\) and \(x\in E\), there exists a unique \(x_r\) such that

Then we can define a single valued mapping \(J_r :E \rightarrow D(A)\) by \(J_r = (J + rA)^{-1}J\) and such a \(J_r\) is called the resolvent of *A*. We know that \(J_r\) is a nonexpansive mapping and \(A^{-1}0=F(J_r)\) for all \(r > 0\), see Takahashi (2000, 2009), Alber (1996).

###
**Lemma 11**

(Aoyama et al. 2009) *Let*
*E*
*be a reflexive, strictly convex and smooth Banach space, and let*
*A*
*be a maximal monotone operator from*
*E*
*to*
\(E^*\). *Then*

*where*
\(J_{r}\)
*is the resolvent of*
*A*.

From Lemma 11, we know that, \(J_r\) is a second-type quasi-nonexpansive mapping, where \(J_r\) is the resolvent of *A* with \(r>0.\)

###
**Definition 12**

Let *E* be a Banach space, let *C* be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of *E*. Let \(\{T_n\}\) be sequence of mappings from *C* into itself with nonempty common fixed point set \(F=\cap _{n=1}^{\infty }F(T_n)\). The \(\{T_n\}\) is said to be uniformly weak closed if for any weak convergent sequence \(\{z_n\} \subset C\) such that \(\Vert T_nz_n-z_n\Vert \rightarrow 0\) as \(n\rightarrow \infty\), the weak limit of \(\{z_n\}\) belong to *F*.

A uniformly weak closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings must be a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings.

###
**Theorem 13**

*Let*
\(r_n\ge c >0\), *for some constant*
*c*, *then*
\(\{J^A_{r_n}\}_{n=0}^{\infty }\)
*is a uniformly weak closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings with the nonempty common fixed point sets*
\(\bigcap _{n=0}^{\infty }F(J^A_{r_n})=A^{-1}0\).

###
*Proof*

It is well-known that, \(\bigcap _{n=0}^{\infty }F(J^A_{r_n})=A^{-1}0 \ne \emptyset\) and \(\{J^A_{r_n}\}_{n=0}^{\infty }\) is a family of countable nonexpansive mappings. Let \(\{z_n\}\subset E\) be a sequence such that \(z_n \rightharpoonup p\) and \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\Vert z_n-J^A_{r_n}z_n\Vert =0\). Since *J* is uniformly norm-to-norm continuous on bounded sets, we obtain

It follows from

and the monotonicity of *A* that

for all \(w\in D(A)\) and \(w^*\in Aw\). Letting \(n\rightarrow \infty\), we have \(\langle w-p, w^*\rangle \ge 0\) for all \(w\in D(A)\) and \(w^*\in Aw\). Therefore from the maximality of *A*, we obtain \(p\in A^{-1}0\). That is \(p\in \bigcap _{n=0}^{\infty }F(J^A_{r_n})\). This completes the proof. \(\square\)

###
**Theorem 14**

*Let*
*H*
*be a Hilbert space and let*
*F*
*be a uniformly convex and smooth Banach space. Let*
\(J_F\)
*be the duality mapping on*
*F*. *Let*
*A*
*and*
*B*
*be maximal monotone operators of*
*H*
*into*
\(2^H\)
*and*
*F*
*into*
\(2^F\)
*such that*
\(A^{-1}0\ne \emptyset\)
*and*
\(B^{-1}0\ne \emptyset\) , *respectively. Let*
\(J_r\)
*be the resolvent of*
*A*
*for*
\(r>0\)
*and let*
\(Q_\mu\)
*be the metric resolvent of B for*
\(\mu >0\). *Let*
\(T : H \rightarrow F\)
*be a bounded linear operator such that*
\(T\ne 0\)
*and let*
\(T^*\)
*be the adjoint operator of*
*T*. *Suppose that*
\(W=A^{-1}0\cap T^{-1}(B^{-1}0)\ne \emptyset\). *Let*
\(x_1\in H\)
*and let*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*be a sequence generated by*

*where*
\(\{r_n\}\)
*satisfy the condition such that*

*for some constants*
*a*, *b*, *c*. *Then*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*converges strongly to a point*
\(z_0=P_{W}x_1\).

### Proof

Let \(T_n=J_{r_n}, \ S_n=Q_{\mu _n}\) for all \(n\ge 1\), then \(\{T_n\}, \ \{S_n\}\) satisfy the all conditions of Theorem 8, and

By using Theorem 9, we obtain the conclusion of Theorem 14. This completes the proof. \(\square\)

###
**Theorem 15**

*Let*
*H*
*be a Hilbert space and let*
*F*
*be a uniformly convex and smooth Banach space. Let*
\(J_F\)
*be the duality mapping on*
*F*. *Let*
*A*
*and*
*B*
*be maximal monotone operators of*
*H*
*into*
\(2^H\)
*and*
*F*
*into*
\(2^F\)
*such that*
\(A^{-1}0\ne \emptyset\)
*and*
\(B^{-1}0\ne \emptyset\) , *respectively. Let*
\(J_r\)
*be the resolvent of*
*A*
*for*
\(r>0\)
*and let*
\(Q_\mu\)
*be the metric resolvent of B for*
\(\mu >0\). *Let*
\(T : H \rightarrow F\)
*be a bounded linear operator such that*
\(T\ne 0\)
*and let*
\(T^*\)
*be the adjoint operator of*
*T*. *Suppose that*
\(W=A^{-1}0\cap T^{-1}(B^{-1}0)\ne \emptyset\). *Let*
\(x_{1,i}\in H\)
*and let*
\(\{x_n\}\)
*and*
\(\{z_n\}\)
*be two sequences generated by*

*where*
\(\{r_n\}\)
*satisfy the condition such that*

*for some constants*
*a*, *b*
*and*
\(\lambda \in [0,1]\)
*is a constant. Then the following conclusions hold:*

(1) \(\{x_n\}\) and \(\{z_n\}\) converge strongly to a point \(w \in W\);

(2) the limits \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }P_{C_n}x_{1,i}=P_{W}x_{1,i}, \ i=1,2,3, \ldots ,N\);

(3) \(w=\sum _{i=1}^{N}\lambda _i \lim _{n\rightarrow \infty } P_{C_n}x_{1,i}\).

###
*Proof*

Let \(T_n=J_{r_n}, \ S_n=Q_{\mu _n}\) for all \(n\ge 1\), then \(\{T_n\}, \ \{S_n\}\) satisfy the all conditions of Theorem 9, and

By using Theorem 8, we obtain the conclusion of Theorem 15. This completes the proof. \(\square\)

## Examples

It is easy to see that, a uniformly weak closed family \(\{T_n\}\) of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings must be a uniformly closed family \(\{T_n\}\) of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings. Next we will give an example which is a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings, but not a uniformly weak closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings.

###
**Conclusion 16**

*Let*
*H*
*be a Hilbert space,*
\(\{x_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty }\subset H\)
*be a sequence such that it converges weakly to a non-zero element*
\(x_0\)
*and*
\(\Vert x_i-x_j\Vert \ge 1\)
*for any*
\(i\ne j\). *Define a sequence of mappings *
\(T_n: H\rightarrow H\)
*as follows*

*where*
\(L_n\le 1\)
*and*
\(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }L_n=1\). *Then*
\(\{T_n\}\)
*is a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings with the common fixed point set*
\(F=\{0\}\), *but not a uniformly weak closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings.*

### Proof

It is obvious that, \(\{T_n\}\) has a unique common fixed point 0. Next, we prove that, \(\{T_n\}\) is uniformly closed. In fact that, for any strong convergent sequence \(\{z_n\}\subset E\) such that \(z_n\rightarrow z_0\) and \(\Vert z_n-T_nz_n\Vert \rightarrow 0\) as \(n\rightarrow \infty\), there exists sufficiently large nature number *N* such that \(z_n\ne x_m\), for any \(n, m >N\). Then \(T_nz_n=-z_n\) for \(n>N\), it follows from \(\Vert z_n-T_nz_n\Vert \rightarrow 0\) that \(2z_n\rightarrow 0\) and hence \(z_0 \in F\). From the definition of \(\{T_n\}\), we have

so that \(\{T_n\}\) is a uniformly closed family of countable quasi-nonexpansive mappings. Next, we prove the \(\{T_n\}\) is not weak closed. Since \(\{x_n\}\) converges weakly to \(x_0\) and

as \(n\rightarrow \infty\), but \(x_0\) is not a fixed point.\(\Box\)

## Conclusion

In the multidirectional iteration algorithm, the \(C_n\) is a closed convex set, and \(F\subset C_n\) for any \(n\ge 1\). If we use one initial \(x_{1,1}\), the projection point \(x_n=P_{C_n}x_{1,1}\) belongs to the boundary of the \(C_n\). If we use *N* initials \(x_{1,1}, x_{1,2}, x_{1,3}, \ldots , x_{1,N}\), the element \(x_{n}=\sum _{i=1}^{N}\lambda _i P_{C_n}x_{1,i}\) belongs to the interior of the \(C_n\). In general, the distance \(d(\sum _{i=1}^{N}\lambda _i P_{C_n}x_{1,i}, F)\) is less than the distance \(d(P_{C_n}x_{1,1}, F)\), so the multidirectional iteration algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of iterative sequence \(\{x_n\}\). We give a simple experimental example in the following.

### Example

Let \(X=R^2, \ C_n=\{(x,y)\in R^2: x^2+y^2\le 1\}, \ x_{1,1}=(1,1), \ x_{1,2}=(-1,1), \ F=\{0\}\). Case 1, take only one initial \(x_{1,1}\), \(x_n=P_{C_n}x_{1,1}=(\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2},\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2})\), then \(d(x_n, F)=1\). Case 2, take two initials \(x_{1,1},x_{1.2}\),

then \(d(x_n, F)=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}\). From the inequality “\(\frac{\sqrt{2}}{2}< 1\)”, we can see that, the multidirectional iteration algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of iterative sequence \(\{x_n\}\).

## References

Alber YI (1996) Metric and generalized projection operators in Banach spaces: properties and applications. In: Kartsatos AG (ed) Theory and applications of nonlinear operators of accretive and monotone type. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 15–50

Alsulami SM, Takahashi W (2014) The split common null point problem for maximal monotone mappings in Hilbert spaces and applications. J Nonlinear Convex Anal 15:793–808

Alsulami SM, Latif A, Takahashi W (2015) Strong convergence theorems by hybrid methods for the split feasibility problem in Banach spaces. Linear Nonlinear Anal 1(1):1–11

Aoyama K, Kohsaka F, Takahashi W (2009) Three generalizations of firmly nonexpansive mappings: their relations and continuous properties. J Nonlinear Convex Anal 10:131–147

Byrne C, Censor Y, Gibali A, Reich S (2012) The split common null point problem. J Nonlinear Convex Anal 13:759–775

Censor Y, Elfving T (1994) A multiprojection algorithm using Bregman projections in a product space. Numer Algorithms 8:221–239

Censor Y, Segal A (2009) The split common fixed-point problem for directed operators. J Convex Anal 16:587–600

Moudafi A (2010) The split common fixed point problem for demicontractive mappings. Inverse Probl 26:055007

Nakajo K, Takahashi W (2003) Strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings and nonexpansive semigroups. J Math Anal Appl 279:372–379

Ohsawa S, Takahashi W (2003) Strong convergence theorems for resolvents of maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces. Arch Math (Basel) 81:439–445

Rockafellar RT (1970) On the maximality of sums of nonlinear monotone operators. Trans Am Math Soc 149:75–88

Solodov MV, Svaiter BF (2000) Forcing strong convergence of proximal point iterations in a Hilbert space. Math Program Ser A 87:189–202

Takahashi W (2000) Nonlinear functional analysis. Yokohama Publishers, Yokohama

Takahashi W, Takeuchi Y, Kubota R (2008) Strong convergence theorems by hybrid methods for families of nonexpansive mappings in Hilbert spaces. J Math Anal Appl 341:276–286

Takahashi W (2009) Introduction to nonlinear and convex analysis. Yokohama Publishers, Yokohama

Takahashi W (2014) The split feasibility problem in Banach spaces. J Nonlinear Convex Anal 15:1349–1355

Takahashi W, Xu H-K, Yao J-C (2015) Iterative methods for generalized split feasibility problems in Hilbert spaces. Set Valued Var Anal 23:205–221

Takahashi W (2015) The split common null point problem in Banach spaces. Arch Math (Basel) 104:357–365

Takahashi W, Yao J (2015) Strong convergence theorems by hybrid methods for the split common null point problem in Banach spaces. Fixed Point Theory Appl 2015:87

## Authors' contributions

All authors contributed equally and significantly in writing this article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

### Acknowledgements

This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (11071279).

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

## Author information

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Li, X., Guo, M. & Su, Y. Multidirectional hybrid algorithm for the split common fixed point problem and application to the split common null point problem.
*SpringerPlus* **5, **2009 (2016) doi:10.1186/s40064-016-3691-2

#### Received

#### Accepted

#### Published

#### DOI

### Keywords

- Split common fixed point problem
- Split common null point problem
- Fixed point
- Metric resolvent
- Multidirectional hybrid algorithm
- Duality mapping

### Mathematics Subject Classification

- 47H05
- 47H09
- 47H10