- Open Access
Epitaxial growth of BaHfO3 buffer layer and its structure degeneration analysed by Raman spectrum
© The Author(s) 2016
- Received: 29 March 2016
- Accepted: 17 October 2016
- Published: 3 November 2016
BaHfO3 (BHO) has been proposed as a new cap layer material for YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) coated conductors. Highly c-axis oriented BHO cap layer has been deposited on ion-beam assisted deposition-MgO buffered Hastelloy tapes by direct-current-magnetron sputtering method. The epi-growth of BHO films combined with its properties is investigated in details. The degenerated cubic crystal structure of BHO film is confirmed by Raman spectrum analysis. XRD θ–2θ scan, φ-scan and ω-scan reveal an excellent c-axis alignment with good in-plane and out-of-plane textures for BHO cap layers. SEM and AFM investigations show BHO cap layer a dense and crack-free morphology. Subsequently pure c-axis orientation YBCO film was epitaxial grown on such BHO cap layer successfully, shown BaHfO3 a potential cap layer material for coated conductors.
- Cap layer
- Magnetron sputtering
- Coated conductors
Due to their high performance and the potential low cost of both raw materials and preparation techniques, coated conductors based on the high temperature superconductors REBa2Cu3O7−δ (REBCO or RE123; RE = Y, Nd, Sm or other rare earth elements) are expected to be practical materials application at liquid nitrogen temperature. To overcome the weak link behavior of the RE123 grain boundaries and achieve high performance coated conductors, the basic requirement is to realize RE123 films texture on flexible substrates. Main techniques to achieve the required biaxially textured RE123 superconducting layer include the rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) (Goyal et al. 1996; Norton et al. 1996; Hühne et al. 2007), ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) (Iijima and Matsumoto 2000; Muroga et al. 2003) and inclined substrate deposition (ISD) (Ma et al. 2004). Compared with RABiTS technique which needs metal substrate a texture structure first, IBAD technology can form the textured films on non-textured polycrystalline metal substrates and is used in worldwide.
Typically, coated conductor architecture includes three layers: the metallic substrate, the buffer layers and the RE123 superconductor layers. The buffer layers on the metallic substrate have two main functions for coated conductors based on the IBAD technique: (1) to form the texture structure and transfer the texture to the epi-grown RE123 superconductor layers; (2) to act as a barrier and prevent Ni or O atoms diffusion during the RE123 processing at high temperature.
Different oxide materials, including LaMnO3 (Aytug et al. 2003), CeO2 (Bhuiyan and Paranthaman 2003), SrTiO3 (Sathyamurthy and Salama 2002) and TiN (Xiong et al. 2010), have been successfully used as buffer layers to fulfill these requirements. Although the mechanism is not clear, it was found that different cap layer properties including material, texture or surface morphology affect subsequently RE123 epi-growth and performance seriously (Wang et al. 2004). Development of new cap layer material is helpful to understand these influences.
Recently, BaHfO3 was found exist stably in RE123 films and was researched as a dope to improve the superconductivity properties of coated conductor films (Erbe et al. 2015). Moreover, no significant reaction between YBCO and BaHfO3 was detected up to YBCO melt temperature about 1060 °C in melt-texture growth technique (Zhang and Evetts 1994). In this case, BHO was thought to be an excellent cap layer material for coated conductors. In this paper, BaHfO3 was deposited on IBAD-MgO buffered Hastelloy substrate as cap layer via DC-magnetron sputtering technique. The biaxially textured BHO cap layer shows a dense, smooth, and crack-free morphology. Finally the YBCO films were epitaxially grown on the BHO cap layer via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, shown BHO a new potential buffer material.
Hasterlloy tapes were electro-polished to a surface roughness less than 2.0 nm and then used as metal substrate. None crystallized Al2O3 and Y2O3 were deposited by Ion-Beam technique at room temperature as barrier layer and seed layer, respectively. MgO template layers were then deposited by ion beam assisted deposition technique (IBAD) to form the biaxial texture.
BaHfO3 (BHO) layers were then epi-grown on such MgO buffered tapes in a reel-to-reel magnetron sputtering system to form BHO/IBAD-MgO/Y2O3/Al2O3/Hastelloy structure. Metal Barium (99.9%) and Hafnium (99.95%) spliced with area ratio about 1:1 were used as metal targets for BHO cap layers deposition. The BHO was deposited in Ar/O2 mixture atmosphere with a total background pressure of 1 Pa and an oxygen partial pressure of about 0.15 Pa. The thickness of BHO films are about 40–50 nm, which are measured with a surface profiler (DEKTAKXT, Bruker Corporation).
After that, typical 300 nm thick YBCO films were epi-grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method to check up the performance of the BHO cap layers with a substrate temperature of 810 °C, a background oxygen pressure of 30 Pa and an oxygen loading step under 4 × 104 Pa during cooling down. More details can be found elsewhere (Hühne et al. 2007; Ying et al. 2009).
Raman scattering experiments were performed in back-scattering geometry using a Spex 1403 double monochromator equipped with a RC31034 photomultiplier and photocounting system to character the fabricated BHO films and analysis their crystal structure. A Spectra-Physics 171 argon ion laser with a 488 nm laser line was served as the excitation source at an incident power of 10 mW on samples.
To evaluate the textures and the orientation of BHO and YBCO films, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Philips X’Pert PRO, Cu Kα, λ = 1.54185 Å) analysis including θ–2θ scan, φ-scan, and rocking curve were performed. The surface morphology and micro-structures of the BHO films were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Apollo 300) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Nanofirst 3600A), respectively. The critical current density Jc of the YBCO coated conductor was examined by inductive measurement using a Cryoscan by Theva.
According to group theory, an ideal cubic perovskite structure crystal has six selection rules and symmetry species of the fundamental modes, including 3F1u + F2u. The F2u mode is silent and the F1u modes are only infrared active, so there should be no first-order Raman active mode for AETO3 crystals in cubic perovskite structure (AE = Ca, Sr and Ba, T = Hf an Zr, space group Pm3m) at room temperature (Karan et al. 2009). Park et al. (1976) found that a distortional noncubic perovskite structures could happen for both CaTO3 and SrTO3 but not for BaTO3 (T = Hf and Zr). In this case, first-order Raman bands are allowed for CaTO3 and SrTO3. Further research found that this degenerated perovskite structures can also happen in BaZrO3 by Ti doping. In this degenerated noncubic structures each of the F1u modes split into two E modes and one A1 mode, and the F2u mode split into one E and two B1 modes. All the A1 and E modes are both Raman and infrared active and the B1 mode is a Raman active (Xie and Zhu 2012).
From Fig. 2, the over damped transverse E1 mode combined with other E1 and A1 Raman modes are obviously detected, located at 145.0, 559.4 and 694.5 cm−1, respectively, indicating a degenerated noncubic structures for BaHfO3 cap layer films. The sharp A1 modes at 145 and 559.4 cm−1 are arisen from the interference of the strong anti-resonance effect, which have been attributed to rotational vibrations associated with the polar BaO6 octahedra. Another sharp A1 mode is also detected at 694 cm−1, which is attributed to symmetric stretching mode vibrations associated with O atoms. Thus by the observation of the first-order Raman scattering, which is forbidden in a perfect cubic structure, the BHO cap layer films distortions away from the ideal cubic structure are evidenced. This may be caused by the presence of three-dimensional stress from the multi-films system. This stress induced structure degeneration is also occurred in CeO2 buffered on Ni–5 at.% W substrate (Lu et al. 2015).
The BaHfO3 films deposited at different substrate temperature were prepared by reel-to-reel magnetron sputtering technique. A stress induced structure degeneration of BHO cap layer films is evidenced by Raman spectrum. The influence of temperature on the texture and surface morphology of BaHfO3 films were also investigated. BHO deposited at 850 °C has the relatively best texture. The in-plane and out-of-plane full width at half-maximum values of about 7.8° and 3.2°, respectively, and the BHO film has a dense, smooth, and crack-free morphology. Subsequently epi-growth of YBCO film on BHO cap layer has a pure c-axis orientation with a Jc about 0.7 MA/cm2 (77 K, self-field), which demonstrates BHO a new buffer layer for coated conductors.
XY, JZ and YL carried out the BHO films deposition and drafted the manuscript. FF and CB carried out the Raman analysis. ZL and YG worked on YBCO films deposition and its analysis. CC participated in its design and coordination. YL conceived of the study and finalized the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work is partly sponsored by Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors (14DZ2260770); the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (13111102300 and 14521102800), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51572165, 11174193, 51371111 and 51202141).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Aytug T, Paranthaman M et al (2003) LaMnO3: a single oxide buffer layer for high-Jc YBa2Cu3O7−δ coated conductors. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 13:2661–2664View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bhuiyan MS, Paranthaman M (2003) MOD approach for the growth of epitaxial CeO2 buffer layers on biaxially textured Ni–W substrates for YBCO coated conductors. Supercond Sci Technol 16:1305–1309ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Erbe M, Hänisch J, Hühne R, Freudenberg T, Kirchner A, Molina-Luna L, Damm C, Van Tendeloo G, Kaskel S, Schultz L, Holzapfel B (2015) BaHfO3 artificial pinning centres in TFA-MOD-derived YBCO and GdBCO thin films. Supercond Sci Technol 28:114002ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Goyal A, Norton DP, Budai JD, Paranthaman M, Specht ED, Kroeger DM, Christen DK, He Q, Saffian B, List FA, Lee DF, Martin PM, Klabunde CE, Hartfield E, Sikka VK (1996) High critical current density superconducting tapes by epitaxial deposition of YBa2Cu3Ox thick films on biaxially textured metals. Appl Phys Lett 69:1795ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hühne R, Subramanya Sarma V, Okai D, Thersleff T, Schultz L, Holzapfel B (2007) Preparation of coated conductor architectures on Ni composite tapes. Supercond Sci Technol 20:709ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Iijima Y, Matsumoto K (2000) High-temperature-superconductor coated conductors: technical progress in Japan. Supercond Sci Technol 13:68ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karan NK, Katiyar RS, Maiti T, Guo R, Bhalla AS (2009) Raman spectral studies of Zr4+‐rich BaZrxTi1−xO3 (0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.00) phase diagram. J Raman Spectrosc 40:370ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu YM, Cai S, Liang Y, Bai CY, Liu ZY, Guo YQ, Cai CB (2015) The mechanism of the nano-CeO2 films deposition by electrochemistry method as coated conductor buffer layers. Physica C 512:1ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma B, Koritala RE, Fisher BL, Uprety KK, Baurceanu R, Dorris SE, Miller DJ, Berghuis P, Gray KE, Balachandran U (2004) High critical current density of YBCO coated conductors fabricated by inclined substrate deposition. Phys C 403:183ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Muroga T, Araki T, Niwa T, Iijima Y, Saito T, Hirabayashi I, Yamada Y, Shiohara Y (2003) CeO2 buffer layers deposited by pulsed laser deposition for TFA-MOD YBa2Cu3O7−x superconducting tape. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 13:2532View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Norton DP, Goyal A, Budai JD, Christen DK, Kroeger DM, Specht ED, He Q, Saffian B, Paranthaman M, Klabunde CE, Lee DF, Sales BC, List FA (1996) Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 on biaxially textured nickel (001): an approach to superconducting tapes with high critical current density. Science 274:755ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park CI, Condrate RA, Synder RL (1976) The Raman spectra of perovskite-structured alkaline earth hafnates. Appl Spectrosc 30:352ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sathyamurthy S, Salama K (2002) Processing aspects of MOD strontium titanate buffer layers for coated conductor applications. Phys C 377:208–216ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Foltyn SR, Arendt PN, Jia QX, MacManus-Driscoll JL, Stan L, Li Y (2004) Microstructure of SrTiO3 buffer layers and its effects on superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7−δ coated conductors. J Mater Res 19:1869ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xie L, Zhu J (2012) The electronic structures, born effective charges, and interatomic force constants in BaMO3 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sn): a comparative first-principles study. J Am Ceram Soc 95:3597View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xiong J, Matias V, Wang H (2010) Much simplified ion-beam assisted deposition-TiN template for high-performance coated conductors. J Appl Phys 108:083903ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ying LL, Lu YM, Liu ZY, Fan F, Gao B, Cai CB, Thersleff T, Reich E, Huhne R, Holzapfel B (2009) Thickness effect of La2Zr2O7 single buffers on metallic substrates using pulsed laser deposition for YBa2Cu3O7−δ-coated conductors. Supercond Sci Technol 22:095005ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang JL, Evetts JE (1994) BaZrO3 and BaHfO3: preparation, properties and compatibility with YBa2Cu3O7−x. J Mater Sci 29:778–785ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar