- Open Access
Nonuniformity correction algorithm with efficient pixel offset estimation for infrared focal plane arrays
© The Author(s) 2016
- Received: 30 September 2015
- Accepted: 13 October 2016
- Published: 21 October 2016
This paper presents an infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) response nonuniformity correction (NUC) algorithm which is easy to implement by hardware. The proposed NUC algorithm is based on the linear correction scheme with the useful method of pixel offset correction coefficients update. The new approach to IRFPA response nonuniformity correction consists in the use of pixel response change determined at the actual operating conditions in relation to the reference ones by means of shutter to compensate a pixel offset temporal drift. Moreover, it permits to remove any optics shading effect in the output image as well. To show efficiency of the proposed NUC algorithm some test results for microbolometer IRFPA are presented.
- Infrared focal plane array
- Nonuniformity correction
- Fixed-pattern noise
Infrared focal plane arrays are widely used in various military and civil systems for thermal imaging. However they suffer from pixel-to-pixel responsivity (gain) and offset variations which induce a spatial noise called a fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the image obtained from the detector array (Mooney et al. 1989). For instance, cooled HgCdTe IRFPAs offer the high electro-optical performance at the operating temperature of 77 K but for the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) region they exhibit a higher response nonuniformity than type-II InAs/GaInSb superlattice structures or quantum well infrared photoconductors (QWIPs) (Rogalski 2011). Modern uncooled microbolometer IRFPAs attain high performance and they become a good choice for cost-effective thermal imaging systems operating in LWIR range (Trouilleau et al. 2009). However they need some additional compensation due to inherent temporal drift of detector characteristics and the impact of housing temperature change on the detector array response. In order to obtain high thermal resolution of the infrared imagery, the IRFPA response nonuniformity must be reduced an order of magnitude below pixel temporal noise (Mooney and Shepherd 1996). For instance, to get a thermal resolution of 20 mK in the system operating in LWIR region where the scene contrast is about 2 %/K, the detector array response nonuniformity must be <0.04 % (σ/m) (Rogalski 2011).
Typical IRFPA response nonuniformity correction (NUC) relies on the signal processing of detector array output in order to remove FPN from the obtained image. In general, NUC methods are divided on reference-based and scene-based ones. The former use extended surface IR references as the uniform temperature sources to determine the suitable correction coefficients (Orżanowski and Madura 2010). The latter are reference-free and the coefficients for detector signal correction are obtained by the statistical analysis of pixel response in real-scene image sequences acquired by the thermal camera (Hayat et al. 1999). The integration of reference-based and scene-based technique into the radiometrically accurate NUC algorithm for IRFPA sensors is presented in the paper by Ratliff et al. (2003). The scene-based NUC methods are more sophisticated and they need the special operations to reduce “ghosting” artifacts appearing in the image after correction when the observed scene gives strong edges or slow global motion (Rossi et al. 2010).
The commonly used reference-based NUC method is the linear two-point calibration (TPC) (Perry and Dereniak 1993). The TPC algorithm is well known and it allows to compensate both gain and offset variations of particular pixels in the array. Moreover, it is easy to implement by hardware and quite sufficient in many applications. Even though this basic NUC algorithm is elaborated in detail, the efficient method of correction coefficients update, especially for pixel offsets, is dissembled or the one-point calibration by means of IR reference is suggested only.
In this paper a modified TPC algorithm enabling pixel offset correction coefficients update and removing optics shading effect by the proper usage of temporally averaged IRFPA response determined at closed inner shutter is presented. Since the IRFPA response on infrared radiance coming from the inner shutter does not include the impact of camera housing and optics infrared radiance then the direct using of that detector response as the offset correction coefficients can lead to the insufficient NUC results appearing as shading effect on the output image. In the presented correction scheme, the pixel response change determined at the actual operating conditions in relation to the reference ones at closed shutter is used to compensate a pixel offset temporal drift. It will be shown further that the proposed NUC algorithm offers some advantages in signal processing path and hardware implementation.
Performance of the conventional TPC algorithm
Blackbody temperature (°C)
σ t (ADU)
σ s (ADU)
Performance of the modified TPC algorithm
Blackbody temperature (°C)
σ t (ADU)
σ s (ADU)
The modified two-point NUC algorithm enabling pixel offset correction coefficients update by the proper usage of temporally averaged IRFPA response determined with closed shutter is proposed. The use of pixel response change determined by the shutter at the actual IRFPA operating conditions in relation to the reference ones provides good detector offset temporal drift compensation and optics shading effect removing as well. The performed tests with microbolometer IRFPA confirm a high efficiency of the proposed NUC algorithm that is easy to implement by hardware too. In case of the thermal imager operating within wide ambient temperature range, the several fixed gain and offset correction coefficients tables are required.
This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland (Grant No. ON515006333) and National Centre for Research and Development, Poland.
The author declares that he has no competing interests.
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