- Open Access
Abietane and nor-abitane diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia rhytidea
© The Author(s) 2016
- Received: 1 May 2016
- Accepted: 22 June 2016
- Published: 13 July 2016
The genus Salvia is a rich source of structurally diverse terpenoids. Different species of the Salvia have been used in folk medicine of Iran and therefore attracted the attention of researchers for exploring their chemical constituents. In a project directed at structurally interesting bioactive metabolites from Iranian Lamiaceae, we studied Salvia rhytidea.
Fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the root of S. rhytidea led to the isolation of a new 20-nor-abietane diterpenoid (1), together with seven known compounds, comprising five abietane diterpenoids (2–6), and two rearranged abietanes (7, 8). Their structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR.
Our results showed that the root of S. rhytidea could be considered as a new and rich source of different types of abietane and rearranged abietane diterpenoids.
- Salvia rhytidea
- Solvent extraction
- Column chromatography
- Structure elucidation
The genus Salvia is a rich source of structurally diverse terpenoids (Kintzios 2000; Moridi Farimani et al. 2013). Among these, numerous diterpenoids with promising bioactivities, such as antileishmanial, antitumor, antimicrobial, antifungal properties, have been reported from Salvia species (Ebrahimi et al. 2013; Tan et al. 2002; Akaberi et al. 2015; Moridi Farimani and Miran 2014; Ulubelen 2003; Jassbi et al. 2006). The most abundant diterpenoids in the genus are abietanes and rearranged abietanes (Wu et al. 2012). The genus Salvia is represented in the Iranian flora by 61 species, of which 17 are endemic (Jamzad et al. 2012). Salvia rhytidea Benth is an endemic species that grows widely in the eastern parts of Iran (Rechinger 1987). In our efforts to discover new and potentially bioactive secondary metabolites from Iranian Salvia species (Moridi Farimani and Mazarei 2014; Ebrahimi et al. 2014; Moridi Farimani et al. 2012; Bahadori et al. 2015; Moridi Farimani et al. 2008), we investigated the petroleum ether extract of the root of S. rhytidea. Here we report the isolation and structure elucidation of 1-deoxo aurocadiol (1), as a new 20-nor-abietane diterpenoid. In addition, the abietane diterpenoids ferruginol (2), taxodione (3), arucadiol (4), deoxyneocryptotanshinone (5), and 7α- Ethoxyroyleanone (6), and rearranged abietanes microstegiol (7) and 12-hydroxysapriparaquinone (8) were isolated and are described here for S. rhytidea for the first time.
Ferruginol (2) is a well known abietane diterpenoid which was isolated from different Salvia species such as S. syriaca and S. sclarea (Ulubelen et al. 2000, 1994). Antileishmanial (Tan et al. 2002), antimicrobial (Ulubelen et al. 1999), cytotoxic (Moujir et al. 1996; Fronza et al. 2011), antihypertensive (Ulubelen et al. 1994), and anticholinesterase (Topcu et al. 2013) activities were reported for ferruginol and the mechanism of its antioxidant properties was also investigated (Saijo et al. 2015).
Taxodione (3) is a diterpenoid with quinone methide skeleton which was reported from different genus like Taxudium, Clerodendrum, and Salvia (Machumi et al. 2010; Kolak et al. 2009; Kusumoto et al. 2009). Different biological properties have been reported for this compound, including antibacterial (Yang et al. 2001), antioxidant (Kolak et al. 2009), antitermitic (Kusumoto et al. 2009), antifeedant (Acosta et al. 2008), antifungal (Topçu and Gören 2007), and anticholinesterase activities (Topcu et al. 2013). Moreover, cytotoxic and tumor inhibitory properties of taxodione have been investigated in in situ and in vivo experiments (Kupchan et al. 1969; Ulubelen et al. 1999; Abou Dahab et al. 2007). The mechanism of action of taxodione for its cytotoxic properties was investigated in several articles with focus on its DNA binding and DNA damaging character (Zaghloul et al. 2008), and its enzyme inhibitory action (Hanson et al. 1970).
Arucadiol (miltiodiol) (4) was previously extracted from S. argentea (Michavila et al. 1986), S. miltiorrhiza (Ginda et al. 1988), S. prionitis (Yong 1995), and S. apiana (González et al. 1992). Cytotoxic properties have been reported for arucadiol (Fronza et al. 2011).
Deoxyneocryptotanshinone (5) is a para-quinone abitanne diterpenod with cytotoxic activity which was isolated from S. miltiorrhiza for the first time (Ikeshiro et al. 1991).
7α-Ethoxyroyleanone (6) has been reported from S. lavandulaefolia, S. lanigra, and Peltodon longipes and its cytotoxic and antioxidant effects were investigated (Fronza et al. 2011; Shaheen et al. 2011; Michavila et al. 1985; Burmistrova et al. 2013).
Microstegiol (7) is a rearranged abietane with a seven-member ring skeleton. This compound has solely been reported from Salvia genus so far (Topcu et al. 2013; Ulubelen et al. 1992). It has been shown to have mild antibacterial effects (Topçu and Gören 2007).
12-hydroxysapriparaquinone (8), a rearranged 4,5-seco-abietane diterpenoid, previously isolated from S. limbata (Topcu et al. 1996).
General experimental procedures
NMR spectra were recorded at a target temperature of 18 °C on a Bruker Avance III 500 MHz spectrometer operating at 500.13 MHz for 1H and 125.77 MHz for 13C. 2D NMR experiments (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) were performed using Bruker microprograms. CDCl3 was purchased from Armar Chemicals. TLC was performed on silica gel (Merck, Kieselgel 60, F254, 0.25 mm) phase. Column chromatography (CC) was carried out using silica gel (70–230 mesh, Merck). Flash column chromatography (FCC) was performed on silica gel (230–400 mesh, Merck).
The roots of Salvia rhytidea were collected from Taftan Mountain, 28°36′ N and 61°4′ E, in the Baluchistan of Iran at an altitude of 2497 m, in autumn 2012. The plant was authenticated by Dr. Valizadeh and a voucher specimen (no. 4938) was deposited in the Herbarium of the School of Biology (Dr. Akhani Herbarium), University of Tehran.
Extraction and purification
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 1.14 (3H, d, J = 6.9 Hz, Me-16), 1.19 (3H, d, J = 6.9 Hz, Me-17), 1.22 (6H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 1.58 (2H, m, H-3), 1.72 (2H, m, H-2), 2.78 (2H, t, J = 6.3 Hz, H-1), 2.90 (1H, sept., J = 6.9 Hz, H-15), 6.78 (1H, s, H-14), 7.02 (1H, d, J = 7.0 Hz, H-7), 7.43 (1H, d, J = 7.0 Hz); 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): 18.5 (C-2), 20.6 (C-16 and C-17), 27.6 (C-1), 31.8 (C-18 and C-19), 32.4 (C-15), 34.0 (C-4), 38.0 (C-3), 126.5 (C-7), 128.4 (C-9), 129.8 (C-6), 131.6 (C-14), 134.6 (C-10), 139.7 (C-13), 140.4 (C-8), 148.8 (C-5), 152.9 (C-11), 161.2 (C-12).
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3); δ 0.92 and 0.95 (each 3H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 1.17 (3H, s, Me-20), 1.22 (1H, m, H-3), 1.25 and 1.26 (each 3H, d, J = 7.0 Hz, Me-16 and Me-17), 1.33 (1H, d, J = 12.0 and 2.2 Hz, H-5), 1.37 (1H, m, H-1),1.48 (1H, m, H-3) 1.58 (1H, dt, J = 13.9 and 3.4 Hz, H-2), 1.68 (1H, brd, J = 12.9 Hz, H-6), 1.72 (1H, m, H-2), 1.88 (1H, tdd, J = 13.2, 7.4, and 1.8 Hz, H-6), 2.14 (1H, brd, J = 12.5 Hz, H-1), 2.80 (1H, dd, J = 11.4 and 7.4 Hz, H-7), 2.88 (1H, ddd, J = 11.4 and 7.4 Hz, H-7), 3.20 (1H, sept., J = 6.9 Hz, H-15), 5.34 (s, OH), 6.69 (1H, s, H-11), 6.86 (1H, s, H-14), 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 20. 1(C-2), 20.4 (C-6), 22.7 (C-19), 23.7 (C-16), 23.8 (C-17), 26.2 (C-20), 27.7 (C-15), 31.0 (C-7), 33.4 (C-18), 34.5 (C-4), 38.8 (C-10), 40.0 (C-1), 42.8 (C-3), 51.5 (C-5), 111.8 (C-11), 127.5 (C-14), 127.8 (C-8), 132.5 (C-13), 149.5 (C-9), 151.8 (C- 12).
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 1.18 and 1.21 (each 3H, d, J = 6.9 Hz, Me-16 and Me-17), 1.15, 1.30 and 1.30 (each 3H, s, Me-18, Me-19 and Me-20), 1.20 and 1.44 (1H, m, H-3), 1.67 and 1.86 (each 1H, m, H-2), 2.64 (1H, brs, H-5), 2.97 (1H, ddd, J = 10.7, 3.6 and 1.3 Hz, H-1), 3.10 (1H, dsept., J = 6.9 and 0.8 Hz, H-15), 6.26 (1H, s, H-7), 6.91 (1H, brs, H-14), 7.66 (s, 11-OH); 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 19.3 (C-2), 22.7 (C-20), 22.7 (C-16), 22.8 (C-17), 22.8 (C-19), 28.1 (C- 15), 33.0 (C-4), 33.6 (C-18), 38.3 (C-1), 42.7 (C-3), 43.5 (C-10), 63.1 (C-5), 126.7 (C-9), 135.1 (C-7), 137.5 (C-14), 140.0 (C-8), 145.1 (C-11), 146.2 (C- 13), 182.7 (C-12), 201.7 (C-6).
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3); δ 1.37 (6H, d, J = 6.9 Hz Me-16 and Me-17), 1.47 (6H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 2.09 (2H, t, J = 6.8 Hz, H-3), 2.94 (2H, t, J = 6.8 Hz, H-2), 3.47 (1H, sept., J = 6.9 Hz, H-15), 6.89 (brs, 11-OH), 7.28 (1H, s, H-14), 7.33 (1H, d, J = 8.6 Hz, H-6), 7.95 (1H, d, J = 8.6 Hz, H-7), 10.73 (s, 11-OH), 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 22.0 (C-16 and C-17), 27.4 (C-15), 29.6 (C-18 and C-19), 35.5 (C-3), 36.2 (C-2), 118.5 (C-14), 120.0 (C-11), 120.1 (C-6), 126.7 (C-10), 127.7 (C-9), 128.4 (C-8), 136.6 (C-13), 137.8 (C-7), 148.2 (C-12), 158.3 (C-5), 204.3 (C-1).
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 1.29 (6H, d, J = 7.0 Hz, Me-16 and Me-17), 1.30 (6H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 1.79 (4H, m, H-2 and H-3), 3.20 (2H, t, J = 6.4 Hz), 3.37 (1H, sept., J = 6.5 Hz, H-15), 7.71 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-6), 7.97 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-7), 7.82 (1H, s, 12-OH); 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): 19.2 (C-2), 19.9 (C-16 and C-17), 24.5 (C-15), 30.0 (C-1), 31.8 (C-18 and C-19), 37.8 (C-3), 123.8 (C-13), 125.1 (C-7), 126.5 (C-9), 132.8 (C-8), 133.4 (C-6), 140.7 (C-4), 152.5 (C-10), 153.3 (C-12), 183.4 (C-11), 184.6 (C-14).
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 0.84 and 0.87 (each 3H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 1.11 (3H, t, J = 5.9 Hz, Me-2′), 1.12 and 1.15 (each 3H, d, J = 7.1 Hz, Me-16 and Me-17), 1.13 (3H, s, Me-20), 1.13 (1H, overlap, H-1), 1.17 (1H, overlap, H-3), 1.29 (1H, m, H-6), 1.39 (1H, brd, J = 13.1 Hz, H-3), 1.47 (1H, dt, J = 14.0, 3.5 Hz, H-2), 1.57 (1H, d, J = 12.8 Hz, H-8), 1.64 (1H, m, H-2), 1.93 (1H, d, J = 14.1 Hz, H-14), 2.60 (1H, brd, J = 13.1 Hz, H-1), 3.10 (1H, sept., J = 7.1 Hz, H-15), 3.61 (2H, m, H-1′), 4.35 (1H, dd, J = 3.2 and 1.6 Hz, H-7); 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): 15.5 (C-2′), 18.5 (C-2), 18.7 (C-16 and C-17), 18.8 (C-20), 21.5 (C-19), 22.8 (C-6), 23.4 (C-15), 32.5 (C-18), 33.0 (C-4), 35.2 (C-1), 38.9 (C-10), 40.5 (C-5), 45.2 (C-5), 65.0 (C-1′), 68.6 (C-7), 124.8 (C-13), 141.2 (C-8), 146.9 (C-9), 150.2 (C-12), 184.0 (C-11), 186.1 (C-14).
1H-NMR (500 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 0.80 and 0.81 (each 3H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 1.17 and 1.22 (each 3H, d. J = 6.9 Hz, Me-16 and Me-17), 1.27 and 2.4 (each 1H, m, H-3), 1.42 and 1.69 (each 1H, m, H-2), 2.33 (3H, s, H-20), 2.80 (1H, ddd, J = 14.0, 6.2 and 2.3 Hz, H-1), 3.03 (1H, dsept, J = 6.7 and 0.7 Hz, H-15), 3.61 (1H, dt, J = 2.1 and 13.1 Hz, H-1), 4.53 (s, 11-OH), 6.91 and 7.07 (1H, d, J = 7.6 Hz, H-7 and H-6), 6.97 (1H, d, J = 0.5 Hz, H-14); 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): 21.1 (C-16), 21.4 (C-20), 21.5 (C-18), 22.1 (C-17), 23.5 (C-2), 26.9 (C-1), 27.1 (C-15), 28.0 (C-19), 39.0 (C-4), 42.9 (C-3), 84.3 (C-11), 126.7 (C-7), 129.1 (C-8), 130.1 (C-6), 137.3 (C-5), 139.3 (C-9), 140.4 (C-14), 141.0 (C-13), 143.3 (C-10), 206.18 (C-12).
1H-NMR(500 MHz, in CDCl3): δ 1.29 (6H, d, J = 7.0 Hz, Me-16 and Me-17), 1.60 and 1.70 (each 3H, s, Me-18 and Me-19), 1.65 (2H, m, H-3), 2.15 (2H, q, J = 8.2 Hz, H-2), 2.42 (3H, s, Me-20), 3.16 (2H, brt, J = 8.2 Hz, H-1), 3.37 (1H, sept., J = 6.5 Hz, H-15), 5.27 (1H, t, J = 6.9 Hz, H-3), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 7.9 Hz, H-6), 7.83 (1H, s, 12-OH), 7.93 (1H, J = 7.9 Hz, H-7); 13C-NMR (125 MHz, in CDCl3): 17.6 (C-19), 19.9 (C-18 and C-19), 20.4 (C-20), 24.6 (C-15), 27.1 (C-1), 30.3 (C-2), 38.5 (C-3), 124.7 (C-13), 125.5 (C-7), 126.2 (C-9), 132.8 (C-8), 136.3 (C-6), 143.3 (C-5), 144.4 (C-10), 145.6 (C-4), 153.3 (C-12), 183.4 (C-11), 184.5 (C-14).
Our results showed that the root of S. rhytidea contained different types of abietane and rearranged abietane diterpenoids. Biological properties of some of these compounds have been reported previously. Accordingly, S. rhytidea could be considered as a new and rich source of natural agents for the treatment of cancer, malaria, and microbial strains.
Analysis and interpretation of data: by FE, MM and NH. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Financial support by the University of Sistan & Baluchestan Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. All spectra were performed at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Basel. The kind assistance of Prof. M. Hamburger, Dr. S.N. Ebrahimi, and all other staff is gratefully appreciated.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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