Open Access

Variations in basic demographics consequential to population size of governorate in Saudi Arabia

  • Rshood Khraif1,
  • Asharaf Abdul Salam1Email author,
  • Rajaram Subramanian Potty2,
  • Ali Aldosari1,
  • Ibrahim Elsegaey1 and
  • Abdullah AlMutairi1
SpringerPlus20165:1431

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3126-0

Received: 19 August 2015

Accepted: 23 August 2016

Published: 30 August 2016

Abstract

Saudi Arabia, divided into 5 planning regions, 13 administrative regions and further to 118 governorates (administrative units), has diverse demographic characteristics from one region to another and from one governorate to another. Rural to urban migration and an exodus of immigrants characterize the Kingdom, where development planning depend largely upon local level requirements based on economic activities. An attempt was made to analyze the population characteristics, such as population size, sex ratio, native to foreigner ratio, and households and persons per households by keeping governorate as unit of analysis. Data of two census period (2004 and 2010) was used in order to explore the situation and track the intercensal changes. Large variations in population were observed between governorates and it varied from 3686 to 5,007,886 in 2010. Governorates are divided according to the number of native population demarcating urbanization, modernization and infrastructure. During the intercensal period, the number of small governorates reduced and medium and large sized governorates increased mainly due to population growth. The average population in governorates was increased in total and in the larger governorates during the period. However, we noticed a reduction in the average population size in the small and medium sized governorates. The size of native population in a governorate influences the sex ratio, the native-foreigner ratio and the persons per household as well as the variations within the group of governorates. Analyses of lower level data shall aid not only to understand the situation but also to support local development policies.

Keywords

Coefficient of variationAdministrative unitsPopulation ratiosImmigrationNative versus foreign population

Background

There has been a change in all dimensions of demography including population growth, immigration, urbanization, age distribution and labor force participation in Saudi Arabia, which is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula (Alrouh et al. 2013). These changes lead to modifications in the socio-economic conditions and infrastructure—housing, education and health. The population growth is the result of the natural increase, traditional Islamic culture (Wincker 1997) and labor oriented immigrations (Khraif 2000, 2007) along the improvement in living conditions, quality of life and infrastructure resulting from economic prospects and urbanization (Susilawati and Al-Surf 2011).

Demographically, Saudi Arabia encourages pronatalist policies that create high fertility despite the prevailing low mortality (Freedman 1995; Jacobson 1994; Omran and Roudi-Fahimi 1993). However, birth rates declined as a result of educational improvements and increasing age at marriage in the Kingdom (Al-Mazrou et al. 1995; Al-Nasser and Bamgboye 1992). The Kingdom has 7.4 % of 359 million Arabs—65.1 % of the Gulf Cooperation Council-GCC (Alrouh et al. 2013; Center for Population Studies 2013; Rashad 2000). The undergoing fertility transition (Alrouh et al. 2013; Khraif 2009; Courbage 1999) of the Kingdom can be attributed to the improvement in health status (United Nations 2002; Shawky 2001). But the existing youth bulge and immigration of foreign laborers (Collemore 2003; Samman 1985); unbalanced sex ratio (Parasuraman 2002); regional disparities in physical and social infrastructure (Al-Khalifeh 1993); increased demands for education, housing, health care and employment (Roudi-Fahimi 1993); and residential mobility (Khraif 1994) in the rapidly urbanizing Saudi Arabia (Susilawati and Al-Surf 2011; Sly and Serow 1993) receive attention of both reformers and policy makers. More than three-fifths of the population of Saudi Arabia lives in major cities, where networks of transportation as well as most basic services are well organized and integrated.

The alarmingly urbanizing Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Khraif 2007) has relatively integrated transportation networks and most basic services (UNDP 2004) addressing the increasing demand for public services such as piped water, electricity, sewage, telephone (United Nations 2006; Makki 1986), housing and transportation (Al-Gabbani 2008) even though with wide spread disparities in physical and social infrastructure (Al-Khalifeh 1993) observed across administrative areas. Local level variations visibly based upon not only the geographic characteristics but also the developmental paradigms are noted. Saudi Arabia has an East West Corridor of development (Khraif 2007) connecting Eastern Region, Al-Riyadh, Al-Madina Al-Monawarah and Makkah Al-Mokarramah, having residential, commercial, and industrial and port networks. This population concentrated corridor has the Kingdom’s majority of developmental activities—education, health, road, and housing infrastructure—demanding both national and foreign labor force. Other regions, on the north and the south, having low population density comprising of lesser commercial and industrial activities; thus having less demand for labor force.

Within the regions, governorates differ widely in terms of population size including national and expatriate, and infrastructure—education, health and other utilities. It is the population size in a given region that determines other factors reflecting demographic, social, economic, and health conditions. Demographic indicators such as sex ratio, native-expatriate ratio and persons per household has significance not only in the changing migration and labor laws in the Kingdom but also in the regional development and population redistribution efforts. It is in this context, an analysis of governorates of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is carried out using 2004 and 2010 census data.

Data and methodology

The present paper provides comparable and most recent data on changes on the current characteristics of the population in Saudi Arabia by regions and groups of governorates according to their population size. The census data (published by the Ministry of Economics and Planning) for the years 2004 and 2010 was analyzed in detail using MSExcel and SPSS (version 20), and applied suitable statistical methods. Governorates were classified into three such as small (<50,000 population), medium (50,000–100,000) and large (100,000+), according to the size of Saudi population, have been analyzed keeping governorate as the unit of quantifying Saudi and non-Saudi population; sex ratio; Saudi-non-Saudi ratio; and average number of persons per household. In addition, we also calculated the coefficient of variation to find out the difference in the population parameters between various governorates as per the classification of Saudi population. Caution is required while interpreting the totals in comparison with the categories based on Saudi population, across the census years, as the denominator (number of governorates) differs, due to the use of preliminary and final census (2010).

Results and discussions

Data analyses have been made in this paper to explore population size, sex ratio, native-foreigner ratio, number of households and persons per household.

Population of governorates

Governorates, the administrative units, in Saudi Arabia have not been formed according to the population size but to the local level development requirements. In total, there are 118 governorates from the thirteen regions of the country (see Table 1). The number of governorates are highest in the Al-Riyadh region (20) followed by Jazan (14), Makkah Al-Mokarramah (12), Aseer (12), Al-Qaseem (11) and Eastern Region (11). The number of governorates is least in Al-Jouf (3), Northern Borders (3) and Hail (4). According to the census 2004, 62 governorates (52.5 %) in Saudi Arabia, have less than 50,000 native population; 24 governorates (20.4 %) have native population of size between 50,000 and 100,000 and the remaining 32 governorates (27.1 %) have 100,000 or more native population. The number of governorates with the same native population size was changed to 50 (42.4 %), 32 (27.1 %) and 36 (30.5 %) in the year 2010. Thus there is a reduction of 10 percentage point in the number of small governorates between the two census periods. Consequently, the number of medium and large governorates increased by about 7 and 3 percentage points, respectively. These governorates have both urban and rural areas with increasing inhabitation in small towns and medium sized cities having investments in urban development (United Nations 2006; UNDP 2004; Sly and Serow 1993) leading to huge expansion and rapid growth of cities in the Kingdom (Khraif 1994). In the year 2004, no governorate was identified as medium size in the Eastern Region, Tabouk and Al-Jouf. However, in the year 2010, the regions of Al-Qaseem and Al-Jouf did not have any medium sized governorate. Similarly, none of the governorates in Al-Baha region had native population of 100,000 or more in the year 2004 and 2010.
Table 1

Distribution of governorates by Saudi population size, across regions

Region

2004

2010

Total

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

 

Al-Riyadh

11 (55.0)

6 (30.0)

3 (15.0)

11 (55.0)

4 (20.0)

5 (25.0)

20 (100.0)

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

6 (50.0)

1 (8.3)

5 (41.7)

5 (41.7)

2 (16.7)

5 (41.7)

12 (100.0)

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

4 (57.1)

1 (14.3)

2 (28.6)

1 (14.3)

4 (57.1)

2 (28.6)

7 (100.0)

Al-Qaseem

8 (72.7)

1 (9.1)

2 (18.2)

8 (72.7)

3 (27.3)

11 (100.0)

Eastern Region

5 (45.5)

6 (54.5)

4 (36.4)

1 (9.1)

6 (54.5)

11 (100.0)

Aseer

3 (25.0)

5 (41.7)

4 (33.3)

1 (8.3)

6 (50.0)

5 (41.7)

12 (100.0)

Tabouk

5 (83.3)

1 (16.7)

4 (66.7)

1 (16.7)

1 (16.7)

6 (100.0)

Hail

2 (50.0)

1 (25.0)

1 (25.0)

2 (50.0)

1 (25.0)

1 (25.0)

4 (100.0)

Northern Borders

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

1 (33.3)

3 (100.0)

Jazan

8 (57.1)

2 (14.3)

4 (28.6)

3 (21.4)

7 (50.0)

4 (28.6)

14 (100.0)

Najran

6 (75.0)

1 (12.5)

1 (12.5)

6 (75.0)

1 (12.5)

1 (12.5)

8 (100.0)

Al-Baha

3 (42.9)

4 (57.1)

3 (42.9)

4 (57.1)

7 (100.0)

Al-Jouf

1 (33.3)

2 (66.7)

1 (33.3)

2 (66.7)

3 (100.0)

Total

62 (52.5)

24 (20.3)

32 (27.1)

50 (42.4)

32 (27.1)

36 (30.5)

118 (100.0)

Thus, the increase in population per governorate reflects the increase in population during the intercensal period, due mainly to the natural increases. Governorates grouped according to the number of native population, shows an increasing trend of governorates by population. This, on the other hand indicates local level developments, urban growth, and expansion of small and medium sized governorates, during the intercensal period 2004–2010.

In the year 2010 (Final Results), total population of 26.1 million persons lived in 4,652,162 housing units in Saudi Arabia. Out of the total population, 19.3 million are native persons (74.1 %) lived in 2,996,253 housing units (the preliminary results shows a total population of 27.1 million, out of which 18.7 million are Saudi—68.9 %—living in 4.6 million housing units). Comparatively, as per the census 2004, the total population was about 22.7 million, lived in 3,991,783 housing units. The count of native population was about 16.5 million (72.9 %) lived in 2,761,738 housing units. The remaining 27.1 % in the year 2004 and 25.9 % in the year 2010 were foreigners, mostly from South Asian and African countries.

It shows an alarming increase of expatriate population in the Kingdom during the intercensal period of 2004–2010. Consequently, the significant proportion of expatriate population, characteristic of GCC nations, exerts pressure on social and economic life leading to unemployment of natives as well as shortage of basic supplies (Khraif 2009; Collemore 2003). Such an influx of foreign labor has developed from the scenario of a small number of national population employed in public sector that attracts foreign labor in other sectors of infrastructure development—power stations, government ministries and services, and industrial and agricultural units (Wincker 1997), though the situation undergoing rapid changes recently. The population in Saudi Arabia was grown by 2.5 persons annually during the period 2004–2010. However, during the same period the native population was grown by 2.8 persons annually. Thus, establishes the population growth from 2004 to 2010 affecting housing units, native to foreigner population, and the labor force composition; consequently, influencing the national demographic scenario.

Population size

We calculated the average population size in the governorates and the results are provided in the Table 2. Overall, in the year 2010, the governorates in the Kingdom had a population size of 221,106 persons per governorate, on an average (163,859 native and 57,247 non-native), and the average population size in 2004 was 192,189 persons per governorates (140,062 native and 52,126 non-native). While the small governorates had a mean population of 35,839 and 34,196; medium governorates had 76,818 and 74,265 and large governorates had 581,645 and 611,226 in the year 2004 and 2010, respectively. The result thus indicates that the population growth during the inter-census period was mainly at the large governorates. In each class of governorates, the population size of non-native persons is proportional to population size of native persons. For example, in both study years large governorates had higher number of non-native persons. In other words, a higher number of native persons in a governorate boost the size of non-native persons.
Table 2

Average population of governorate, across regions

Region

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

Total

a. Average population size

2004

Al-Riyadh

20,035

7520

27,555

68,658

15,143

83,801

1,031,075

519,711

1,550,786

186,278

86,636

272,914

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

33,756

5018

38,774

58,728

13,555

72,282

659,679

432,071

1,091,750

298,719

184,380

483,099

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

46,990

5315

52,305

51,885

6203

58,088

452,213

170,495

622,708

163,467

52,636

216,103

Al-Qaseem

26,360

5667

32,027

94,361

21,520

115,881

256,015

65,924

321,938

74,297

18,064

92,361

Eastern Region

33,730

8946

42,676

397,809

126,633

524,442

232,318

73,139

305,457

Aseer

44,057

6393

50,451

66,306

8484

74,790

242,785

47,874

290,659

119,570

21,091

140,662

Tabouk

35,274

5396

40,670

417,901

70,464

488,365

99,045

16,241

115,286

Hail

31,961

5830

37,791

44,474

2792

47,266

298,879

57,891

356,770

112,937

18,784

131,721

Northern Borders

36,107

5678

41,785

63,407

9956

73,363

140,320

24,503

164,823

79,945

13,379

93,324

Jazan

37,288

6323

43,612

58,277

8163

66,440

144,791

31,663

176,454

71,002

13,826

84,828

Najran

12,330

1317

13,647

62,820

10,145

72,965

212,240

53,258

265,498

43,630

8913

52,543

Al-Baha

30,594

3840

34,434

59,134

9516

68,650

46,902

7083

53,986

Al-Jouf

34,608

5461

40,069

136,713

24,122

160,835

102,678

17,901

120,579

Total

30,063

5776

35,839

65,644

11,174

76,818

409,000

172,645

581,645

140,062

52,126

192,189

2010

Al-Riyadh

22,558

8147

30,704

66,247

13,782

80,029

798,639

370,890

1,169,528

225,316

99,959

325,275

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

36,705

5404

42,109

68,089

17,770

85,860

791,862

464,204

1,256,066

356,585

198,631

555,216

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

44,074

3953

48,027

55,513

6649

62,162

514,895

184,141

699,036

185,131

56,976

242,107

Al-Qaseem

30,754

6021

36,775

237,129

59,592

296,722

87,038

20,631

107,670

Eastern Region

34,697

8913

43,610

57,537

9512

67,049

462,553

130,494

593,047

270,150

75,284

345,434

Aseer

44,901

8902

53,803

64,234

7522

71,756

239,223

43,356

282,579

135,535

22,568

158,103

Tabouk

34,496

5387

39,882

54,839

6479

61,318

479,880

76,952

556,832

112,117

17,496

129,613

Hail

35,173

6849

42,022

97,358

6090

103,448

339,896

65,919

405,815

126,900

21,427

148,327

Northern Borders

41,135

6720

47,855

70,432

7834

78,266

162,683

22,669

185,352

91,417

12,408

103,824

Jazan

15,792

734

16,527

63,772

10,133

73,906

156,936

34,399

191,336

80,109

15,052

95,162

Najran

13,264

1475

14,739

73,435

11,014

84,449

256,487

67,245

323,732

51,188

10,888

62,077

Al-Baha

33,678

4030

37,708

63,388

10,012

73,400

50,655

7448

58,103

Al-Jouf

40,640

7936

48,576

158,913

30,931

189,845

119,489

23,266

142,755

Total

28,471

5727

34,196

64,443

9822

74,265

440,268

170,959

611,226

163,859

57,247

221,106

This trend—native to expatriate widened during the intercensal period, despite concerted efforts in line with nationalization of labor force. Such changes during the intercensal period are of concern to the demographers and other policy oriented researchers as the increasing trend of expatriates in the Kingdom shall have long term implications on population distribution and family formations.

Overall, both in 2004 and 2010, the average population of the native persons per governorate was highest in Makkah Al-Mokarramah, followed by Al-Riyadh and Eastern Region. However, in 2004 Najran, Al-Baha, and Jazan had lowest mean population of the native persons per governorate. In 2010, lowest average population of native persons per governorate was in Al-Baha followed by Najran and Jazan. As per the 2004 census, the average population size of native persons in the small governorates was lowest in the Najran region followed by Al-Riyadh, Al-Qaseem, Al-Baha and Hail. In case of medium governorates, the average population size of native persons was lowest in the region Al-Madina Al-Monawarah followed by Jazan, Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Baha. On the other hand, Al-Riyadh and Makkah Al-Mokarramah had the highest average native persons in the governorates classified as large. Mass migrations from rural to urban areas increasing over urbanization, alarm the growth of primate city (Makki 1986)—Riyadh, which is the fastest growing city in the Middle East (Susilawati and Al-Surf 2011), where a large number of non-native persons are brought for employment (Center for Population Studies 2013).

Population size in these governorates has increased markedly during the intercensal period, in line with population growth of the Kingdom, in general. It is the medium and large governorates whose population expanded remarkably in the period. It shows the governmental efforts in line with development in both medium and large governorates, neglecting the smaller ones.

Sex ratio

Sex ratio as provided by the census was examined and it was found that the over all sex ratio was 132 in 2010 but 124 in 2004 (Table 3), showing an increasing trend. It ranged from 118 to 134 in different governorates classified according to their population size of native persons in 2010, whereas it ranged between 112 and 126 in 2004; again an increasing trend. While we identified a balanced sex ratio of 104 males per 100 females among the native persons in 2010 it ranged from 98 to 106 in governorates as per their population size of native persons. However, in 2010 an imbalanced sex ratio of 238 males per 100 females was identified for non-native persons and the highest sex ratio among the non-native persons was in the small governorates. This higher sex ratios of the expatriates is alarming indicating the male dominating labor sector in the Kingdom and its requirements, especially in the smaller governorates. In the medium and larger governorates, labor force demands more technical and professional expatriates accommodating families.
Table 3

Sex ratio at governorate, across regions

Region

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

Total

2004

Al-Riyadh

100

448

141

95

401

119

106

227

135

104

239

134

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

89

394

105

96

383

121

101

178

126

100

181

125

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

91

535

106

96

458

110

99

189

118

98

201

116

Al-Qaseem

97

511

124

96

308

117

101

352

127

99

375

125

Eastern Region

104

392

132

105

291

132

105

295

132

Aseer

86

358

101

91

449

106

97

338

117

102

354

113

Tabouk

98

386

115

109

292

124

106

314

122

Hail

94

687

120

93

635

102

95

288

112

95

338

111

Northern Borders

99

348

115

97

334

113

102

279

117

100

301

115

Jazan

96

203

106

94

200

103

95

199

108

95

200

107

Najran

94

525

108

110

244

122

98

246

116

99

264

115

Al-Baha

83

425

97

89

310

104

87

332

102

Al–Jouf

97

335

113

101

312

118

100

315

117

Total

95

384

116

94

358

112

102

216

126

101

227

124

2010

Al-Riyadh

104

443

153

98

427

126

108

237

143

107

246

143

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

92

380

111

101

588

150

103

184

131

103

188

130

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

90

587

105

94

479

112

103

201

127

101

213

124

Al-Qaseem

101

491

134

103

319

132

103

349

133

Eastern Region

106

475

156

106

397

144

108

312

144

108

319

144

Aseer

90

308

112

92

416

109

101

320

122

99

333

119

Tabouk

101

409

124

97

384

113

108

292

126

106

317

124

Hail

99

687

136

99

294

118

99

326

121

Northern Borders

101

389

125

95

330

112

103

285

121

101

309

119

Jazan

169

247

173

101

222

114

100

208

116

103

213

117

Najran

98

538

117

108

280

123

101

247

124

102

270

122

Al-Baha

89

407

106

97

322

115

94

339

113

Al-Jouf

101

413

130

104

356

130

103

362

130

Total

101

447

132

98

356

118

106

227

134

104

238

132

Sex ratio of 2010 is based on Preliminary Reports

In 2004, the sex ratio among non-native was also high at 227 males per 100 females and ranged from 216 to 384 in various governorates grouped as per the population size of native persons. Here too a widening sex ratio trend observed showing the increased requirements at domestic level, low skilled expatriate labor. That is, over the time, the tendency to employ low skilled and unskilled expatriates laborers increasing leading to demographic imbalances reflecting in the sex ratio. This might be an outcome of nationalization movement reducing skilled and professional expatriates.

It is important to note that sex ratio among the non-native persons declines with increasing number of native persons in a governorate. This may be due to the fact that small governorates bring expatriates in single—non family—status whereas larger governorates bring expatriates with family status; again depend upon the manpower requirements. Rapid urbanization (Telvizian 2009; Khraif 2007; United Nations 2006; Khraif 1994; Makki 1986) and influx of foreign labor (Collemore 2003; Khraif 2009; Wincker 1997; Alghamdi 1995) disturbs the sex ratio, depending upon the labor requirements; thus “Saudi Arabia and the nearby Qatar and Kuwait have the highest sex ratios in the world” (Parasuraman 2002). But the sex ratios are changing among the native Saudi community, as a result of environmental effects on reproductive health (Babay 2004), which is debatable. The increase in the overall sex ratio between 2004 and 2010 was mainly due to the larger increase in the sex ratio among non-native persons (11 percentage points) as compared to native person (3 percentage points). This widening sex ratio trend receives attention requiring caution at policy levels.

While the sex ratio changes among native persons is due to environmental effects; that of non-native persons is attributed to the labor importation (immigration) policies. Over all, the sex ratio was increased in all the regions between 2004 and 2010 with the highest increment in Al-Jouf region. This increase attributed to the trend followed by the non-native persons. But, sex ratio of non-native persons was declined in Al-Qaseem (26 points), Aseer (21 points) and Hail (12 points) regions between 2004 and 2010. Among the smaller governorates, Aseer region had experienced the highest decline in the sex ratio among the non-native persons between 2004 and 2010, followed by Al-Qaseem, Al-Baha, Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Riyadh. However, in other regions of the small governorate group, we noticed an increase in the sex ratio among the non-native persons with maximum sex ratio change of 83 percentage points in Eastern Region and 78 percentage points in the Al-Jouf region. In the small governorates, we noticed a higher increase in the sex ratio among native persons in the Jazan region. Thus, the trend of sex ratio varies depending on the livelihood options and development activities regionally. The increasing infrastructure development during the intercensal period might have caused this trend.

In the medium governorate regions, a slight decline in the sex ratio among native persons was observed in three regions such as Al-Madina Al-Monawarah, Northern Borders, and Najran between 2004 and 2010 and the sex ratio was increased in other regions of the country during the same period. Among the non-native persons the sex ratio declined in the medium governorates in the regions of Aseer and Northen Borders. Highest increment in sex ratio among non-native persons in medium governorates was in Makkah Al-Mokarramah region, attributed to higher requirements of male labor force to serve the pilgrim population. In the large governorates, the difference in the sex ratio between 2004 and 2010 among the native persons was found to be small. Whereas, in case of non-native persons sex ratio was declined in the large governorates of Al-Qaseem and Aseer regions and it was increased in other regions. Increasing sex ratio cautions the policy making processes for its significance in reproductive health. On, the other hand, sex ratio of non-native persons remains high showing the gender specific labor oriented migration (Center for Population Studies 2012) to fulfill the labor requirements for efficient development programs. Thus, it is of a theoretical concern and a status issue, while including the labor immigrants in the sex ratio frame work.

Ratio of population

An issue of concern to the fast developing Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the exodus of expatriates hailing from Asia as well as Africa (Khraif 2009; Collemore 2003; Wincker 1997). There are 349 non-native per 1000 native population in the Kingdom (making 259 per 1000 persons), as of 2010 showing a decreasing trend compared to 2004 (372 out of Saudi and 271 out of total). Such a fast decreasing ratio indicates the changing labor markets and infrastructural development in the Kingdom (Table 4). In both 2004 and 2010, the ratio of non-native population to native population was small in medium governorates compared to small and large governorates. An overall ratio of 741:259 (native: non-native) observed in the Kingdom at governorate level, in 2010; the corresponding ratio during 2004 was 729:271 indicating a declining trend in the non-native population. The results indicate that population of non-natives decreased more in the medium and large governorates between 2004 and 2010. This gives hope for the efforts of nationalization movement in line with improving employment of national population.
Table 4

Ratio of population (per 1000) at governorate, across regions

Region

Non Saudi to Saudi

Saudi to total

Non Saudi to total

Non Saudi to Saudi

Saudi to total

Non Saudi to total

Non Saudi to Saudi

Saudi to total

Non Saudi to total

Non Saudi to Saudi

Saudi to total

Non Saudi to total

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

Total

2004

Al-Riyadh

375

727

273

221

819

181

504

665

335

465

683

317

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

149

871

129

231

812

188

655

604

396

617

618

382

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

113

898

102

120

893

107

377

726

274

322

756

244

Al-Qaseem

215

823

177

228

814

186

257

795

205

243

804

196

Eastern Region

265

790

210

318

759

241

315

761

239

Aseer

145

873

127

128

887

113

197

835

165

176

850

150

Tabouk

153

867

133

169

856

144

164

859

141

Hail

182

846

154

63

941

519

194

838

162

166

857

143

Northern Borders

157

864

136

157

864

136

175

851

149

167

857

143

Jazan

170

855

145

140

877

123

219

821

179

195

837

163

Najran

107

804

96

161

861

139

251

799

201

204

830

170

Al-Baha

126

888

112

161

861

139

151

869

131

Al-Jouf

158

864

136

176

850

150

174

852

148

Total

192

839

161

170

855

145

422

703

297

372

729

271

2010

Al-Riyadh

361

735

265

208

828

172

464

683

317

444

693

307

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

147

872

128

261

793

207

586

630

370

557

642

358

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

90

918

82

120

893

107

358

737

263

308

765

235

Al-Qaseem

196

836

164

251

799

201

237

808

192

Eastern Region

257

796

204

165

858

142

282

780

220

279

782

218

Aseer

198

834

165

117

895

105

181

847

153

167

857

143

Tabouk

156

865

135

118

894

106

160

862

138

156

865

135

Hail

195

837

163

194

838

162

169

856

144

Northern Borders

163

860

140

111

900

100

139

878

122

136

880

120

Jazan

47

956

44

159

863

137

219

820

180

188

842

158

Najran

111

900

100

150

870

130

262

792

208

213

825

175

Al-Baha

120

893

107

158

864

136

147

872

128

Al-Jouf

195

837

163

195

837

163

195

837

163

Total

199

833

166

152

868

132

338

720

280

349

741

259

The ratio of population in the regions for various governorates with different native population size shows lower non-native to native population was found in the governorates of Northern Borders followed by Al-Baha and Tabouk regions, whereas highest ratio was noticed in the regions of Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Riyadh, in the year 2010 (Table 4). Governorates in regions with less urban population and urban infrastructure have lesser ratio; those urbanized regions have higher ratio: thus reflecting upon the demand for foreign laborers in those region’s developmental activities and life styles. Between 2004 and 2010, the non-native to native population ratio declined tremendously in Makkah Al-Mokarramah (60 points) followed by Eastern Region (36 points), Northern Borders (31 points) and Al-Riyadh (21 points). However, the ratio of non-native to native population was found to have increased during the period in governorates of few regions, such as Al-Jouf, Najran and Hail. This trend is crucial especially in the context of increasing number of expatriates in proportion with the native population. On the other hand, it shows the effect of nationalization strategy implementation.

In 2010, among the smaller governorates group, Al-Riyadh region followed by the Eastern Region had the highest ratio of non-native to native population and Jazan region had the lowest ratio. Between 2004 and 2010, in the small governorates, Jazan region had the largest decline in the non-native population followed by Al-Madina Al-Monawarah. But, governorates in Aseer, Al-Jouf and Hail region’s ratio of non-native to native population has increased during the period. In the medium governorates Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Riyadh regions had the highest ratio of non-native population in 2010. We noticed an increase in the ratio of non-native to native population in two regions of medium governorates, namely Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Jazan between 2004 and 2010. In the larger governorates Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Riyadh regions had the highest ratio of non-native to native population in 2010. There was an increase in the non-native population in larger governorates of Al-Jouf and Najran during the period 2004–2010.

Households

In 2010, on an average there was 39,450 households per governorate in the Kingdom (4,655,127 in total); out of them 25,417 (2,999,218 in total) belonging to native person whereas 14,033 (1,655,909 in total) belonging to non-native person. The corresponding number of households in the year 2004 was 33,890 (3,999,011 in total), 23,466 (2,768,966) and 10,424 (1,230,045), respectively; suggesting an increasing trend over the period. This increase might be proportional to the population combined with the effect of nucleation of families. In all types of governorates, the native population had the highest number of households, which also agrees with the population size.

Apparently smaller governorates included lesser number of average households belonging to both native and non-native persons. Overall, in 2004 the average size ranged between 2361 and 9288 households in the smaller governorates (1870–7487 in case of native persons and 491–2157 in case of non-native persons). On the other hand, medium sized governorates included 13,123 households, on an average and ranged between 9318 and 18,707 (7804–12,015 in case of native persons and 1299–4231 in case of non-native persons). The average number of households in the larger governorates was 103,360 and it ranged between 21,666 and 271,628.

In total, the mean number of households per governorates varied from 10,679 (Najran) to 110,743 (Makkah Al-Mokarramah), as of 2010 and the mean for 2004 was 8742 (Najran) and 98,159 (Makkah Al-Mokarramah). The results also suggests that governorates in Al-Riyadh and Eastern Region had comparatively higher number of households and governorates whereas Al-Baha, Northern Borders, Jazan and Al-Qaseem had comparatively lesser number of households (Table 5). Among the small governorates Aseer and Al-Jouf regions had the highest average number of households in 2010. However, in 2004 Al-Madina Al-Monawarah and Aseer regions found to have the highest average number of households. In 2010, minimum number of average households in the small governorates was identified in Jazan and Najran, and in 2004 the same was observed in Najran and Al-Riyadh regions. Similarly, in 2010 Makkah Al-Mokarramah, Hail and Al-Riyadh regions had the high mean number of households among the medium size governorates, whereas Eastern Region, Jazan and Tabouk regions had governorates with low mean number of households. However, in 2004 Al-Qaseem, Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Riyadh regions had the maximum mean number of households and Jazan and Northern Borders regions are found to have the minimum average number of households in a governorate. In both 2010 and 2004, larger governorates in the regions of Makkah Al-Mokarramah and Al-Riyadh had highest mean number of households. In 2010, lowest mean number of households was found in the governorates of Northern Borders and Jazan regions and in 2004 it was minimum in the governorates of Al-Jouf and Northern Borders regions.
Table 5

Average number of households in governorate across regions

Region

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

Total

2004

Al-Riyadh

3235

1984

5219

10,632

4231

14,864

175,544

96,084

271,628

31,301

16,773

48,074

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

5747

1778

7525

11,063

3836

14,899

134,539

87,558

222,097

60,296

37,863

98,159

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

7487

1802

9288

9472

1299

10,771

80,657

31,030

111,686

28,676

10,081

38,757

Al-Qaseem

3986

1472

5458

14,348

4359

18,707

38,461

14,114

52,575

11,196

4033

15,229

Eastern Region

4750

1621

6371

62,370

21,286

83,656

36,179

12,348

48,527

Aseer

6626

1609

8235

10,532

2473

13,005

38,425

11,219

49,643

18,853

5172

24,025

Tabouk

5880

1311

7191

67,500

15,024

82,524

16,150

3596

19,746

Hail

4236

2157

6393

12,015

1978

13,993

39,673

11,833

51,506

15,040

4531

19,571

Northern Borders

4656

1091

5747

7915

1811

9726

18,073

4313

22,386

10,215

2405

12,620

Jazan

5213

1282

6494

7804

1514

9318

21,251

5948

27,199

10,165

2648

12,813

Najran

1870

491

2361

9620

1574

11,194

31,360

13,211

44,571

6525

2216

8742

Al-Baha

4620

1332

5952

9391

2587

11,978

7346

2049

9396

Al-Jouf

4312

1361

5673

16,672

4994

21,666

12,552

3783

16,335

Total

4571

1502

6073

10,213

2909

13,123

70,013

33,346

103,360

23,466

10,424

33,890

2010

Al-Riyadh

3659

2772

6432

10,034

4836

14,870

120,240

84,889

205,129

34,080

23,714

57,794

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

6313

2063

8375

12,629

5831

18,460

143,066

106,957

250,023

64,346

46,397

110,743

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

6552

1432

7984

9477

2568

12,045

83,756

42,809

126,565

30,282

13,903

44,185

Al-Qaseem

4658

1804

6463

32,701

17,624

50,324

12,306

6119

18,425

Eastern Region

4624

2071

6695

7417

3035

10,452

66,823

30,198

97,021

38,805

17,501

56,305

Aseer

7185

3214

10,399

9706

2653

12,359

37,092

13,257

50,349

20,907

7118

28,025

Tabouk

5313

1876

7189

8756

2101

10,857

73,465

20,140

93,605

17,245

4957

22,203

Hail

4758

2895

7653

14,609

2097

16,706

44,023

18,620

62,643

17,037

6627

23,664

Northern Borders

4850

1407

6257

8965

2495

11,460

19,020

6170

25,190

10,945

3357

14,302

Jazan

2298

235

2533

8392

2211

10,603

21,541

8150

29,690

10,843

3484

14,327

Najran

1982

576

2558

10,779

2350

13,129

36,388

20,566

56,954

7382

3297

10,679

Al-Baha

5384

1796

7180

9875

3612

13,487

7950

2834

10,784

Al-Jouf

5868

2634

8502

21,785

9176

30,962

16,480

6996

23,475

Total

4355

1901

6257

9697

3100

12,797

68,644

40,601

109,245

25,417

14,033

39,450

Number of households belonging to both native and non-native persons per governorate had increased in all the regions during the period 2004–2010. We noticed a negligible decline in case of households of native persons in smaller governorates (Eastern Region and Tabouk) and in medium sized governorates (Al-Riyadh and Aseer). However, a noticeable decline was observed in smaller governorates of Jazan and larger governorates of Al-Riyadh, Al-Qaseem and Aseer.

Number of persons per household

Number of households depends upon the number of persons in a governorate. Number of persons per household was 5.60 in the Kingdom, as of 2010; 6.45 in case of native persons and 4.08 in case of non-native persons, as compared to 5.48, 6.08 and 4.12, respectively, in 2004 (Table 6). The result suggests that the average household size was increased mainly among the native population, despite the effects of urbanization and modernization. No difference was observed across the various types of governorates on the number of persons per household, except in case of non-native persons. Larger governorates found to have bigger size households among non-native persons, an indication of family status and housing issues, attached to labor VISA (provisions of family status and accommodation facilities). The situation improving with relaxed rules and regulations.
Table 6

Average number of persons per households in governorate across regions

Region

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

Saudi

Non Saudi

Total

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

Total

2004

Al-Riyadh

6.19

3.79

5.28

6.46

3.58

5.64

5.87

5.41

5.71

5.95

5.17

5.68

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

5.87

2.82

5.15

5.31

3.53

4.85

4.9

4.93

4.92

4.95

4.87

4.92

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

6.28

2.95

5.63

5.48

4.78

5.39

5.61

5.49

5.58

5.7

5.22

5.58

Al-Qaseem

6.61

3.85

5.87

6.58

4.94

6.19

6.66

4.67

6.12

6.64

4.48

6.06

Eastern Region

7.1

5.52

6.7

6.38

5.95

6.27

6.42

5.92

6.29

Aseer

6.65

3.97

6.13

6.3

3.43

5.75

6.32

4.27

5.85

6.34

4.08

5.85

Tabouk

6

4.12

5.66

6.19

4.69

5.92

6.13

4.52

5.84

Hail

7.54

2.7

5.91

7.4

2.82

6.76

7.53

4.89

6.93

7.51

4.15

6.73

Northern Borders

7.75

5.2

7.27

8.01

5.5

7.54

7.76

5.68

7.36

7.83

5.56

7.4

Jazan

7.15

4.93

6.72

7.47

5.39

7.13

6.81

5.32

6.49

6.98

5.22

6.62

Najran

6.59

2.68

5.78

6.53

6.45

6.52

6.77

4.03

5.96

6.69

4.02

6.01

Al-Baha

6.62

2.55

5.77

8.21

4.47

5.79

6.38

3.46

5.75

Al-Jouf

8.03

4.01

7.06

8.2

4.83

7.42

8.18

4.73

7.38

Total

6.58

3.84

5.9

6.43

3.84

5.85

5.84

5.18

5.63

5.97

5

5.67

2010

Al-Riyadh

6.16

2.94

4.77

6.6

2.85

5.38

6.64

4.37

5.7

6.61

4.22

5.63

Makkah Al-Mokarramah

5.81

2.62

5.03

5.39

3.05

4.65

5.53

4.34

5.05

5.54

4.28

5.01

Al-Madina Al-Monawarah

6.73

3.76

5.02

5.86

2.59

5.16

6.15

4.3

5.52

6.11

4.1

5.48

Al-Qaseem

6.6

3.34

5.69

7.25

3.38

5.9

7.07

3.37

5.84

Eastern Region

7.5

4.3

6.51

7.76

3.13

6.41

6.92

4.32

6.11

6.96

4.3

6.14

Aseer

6.25

2.77

5.17

6.62

2.84

5.81

6.45

3.27

5.61

6.48

3.17

5.64

Tabouk

6.49

2.87

5.55

6.26

3.08

5.65

6.53

3.82

5.95

6.5

3.53

5.84

Hail

7.39

2.37

5.49

6.66

2.9

6.19

7.72

3.54

6.48

7.45

3.23

6.27

Northern Borders

8.48

4.78

7.65

7.86

3.14

6.83

8.55

3.67

7.36

8.35

3.7

7.26

Jazan

6.87

3.12

6.52

7.6

4.58

6.97

7.29

4.22

6.44

7.39

4.32

6.64

Najran

6.69

2.56

5.76

6.81

4.69

6.43

7.05

3.27

5.68

6.93

3.3

5.81

Al-Baha

6.26

2.24

5.25

6.42

2.77

5.44

6.37

2.63

5.39

Al-Jouf

6.93

3.01

5.71

7.29

3.37

6.13

7.25

3.33

6.09

Total

6.58

3.01

5.47

6.65

3.17

5.8

6.41

4.21

5.6

6.45

4.08

5.6

Number of persons per household in a governorate decreased during 2004–2010, especially in Makkah Al-Mokarramah, Al-Riyadh and Eastern Region, lowest increase was observed in Al-Baha, Jazan and Northern Borders.

Coefficient of variation

An attempt is made to extract variations in a few population dimensions of governorates grouped into three based on the number of native persons as shown in the Table 1. Indications of higher levels of variability within the governorates were observed. Variations decreased from 2004 to 2010 in case of all indicators for both small and medium sized governorates but the reverse is true in case of large governorates. Change in male (−9.7 points) and female population of native (6.5 points) and thus the total native population (−4.4 points) indicates the differential growth of population at local geographic units that reflecting migrations more than other factors like natural increase (Table 7). On the other hand, the decrease in the coefficient of variation indicates a movement towards balance. It may also be due to redefinitions and reclassification of governorates, during the intercensal period. The overall scenario is a mix of both increases and decreases. An increase of coefficient of variation noted in case of non-native population (12.5 points), non-native households (8.2 points), male non-native population (4.9 points), male total population (0.6 points) and female total population (1.3 points) indicating an unplanned and unexpected change in population, especially of non-native (foreigners).
Table 7

Coefficient of variation (CV) for various population dimensions across groups of governorates (%)

 

<50,000

50,000–100,000

100,000+

Total

2004

2010

Difference

2004

2010

Difference

2004

2010

Difference

2004

2010

Difference

Saudi population

228.2

44.8

−183.4

147.0

20.0

−126.9

102.1

136.7

34.7

234.9

230.4

−4.4

Non Saudi population

318.2

69.0

−249.2

175.0

45.8

−129.2

108.9

214.6

105.7

362.2

374.7

12.5

Total population

251.4

45.4

−206.0

151.5

20.6

−130.9

101.8

156.3

54.5

265.0

264.1

−1.0

Saudi households

239.3

46.1

−193.2

141.0

22.1

−118.9

105.8

140.3

34.5

249.0

236.3

−12.6

Non Saudi households

305.8

63.2

−242.6

152.5

52.6

−99.9

97.9

200.6

102.7

333.5

341.7

8.2

Total households

258.1

46.3

−211.8

143.7

25.0

−118.7

103.3

161.3

58.1

272.0

271.4

−0.6

Male Saudi population

232.8

43.5

−189.3

151.3

20.2

−131.2

102.9

136.7

33.8

240.9

231.2

−9.7

Female Saudi population

223.6

46.4

−177.2

142.8

20.3

−122.5

101.3

131.9

30.6

228.8

222.3

−6.5

Male non Saudi population

307.6

73.0

−234.6

172.5

54.1

−118.5

107.4

201.9

94.4

344.4

349.3

4.9

Female non Saudi population

344.9

76.8

−268.0

184.7

56.3

−128.3

115.0

226.5

111.4

409.7

405.0

−4.7

Male total population

257.3

46.9

−210.4

156.4

23.1

−133.3

102.4

161.3

58.9

272.9

273.4

0.6

Female total population

244.1

46.7

−197.4

145.9

20.5

−125.4

101.7

151.7

50.1

255.4

256.7

1.3

Ratios (%)—median centered

            

Population (Saudi/non Saudi)

58.0

142.7

84.7

75.0

40.0

−35.0

54.1

48.8

−5.3

70.0

101.8

31.8

Population (Saudi/total)

11.6

9.7

−1.9

6.0

5.4

−0.6

9.3

11.3

2.0

10.0

9.5

−0.5

Households (Saudi/non Saudi)

54.2

176.0

121.8

58.0

43.4

−14.6

43.1

56.6

13.5

54.1

115.9

61.8

Households (Saudi/total)

13.0

15.8

2.8

8.8

10.0

1.2

12.8

12.4

−0.4

12.1

13.7

1.6

Saudi population (male/female)

8.0

49.8

41.8

6.7

6.5

−0.2

7.4

6.7

−0.7

7.6

32.8

25.2

Non Saudi population (male/female)

38.0

40.3

2.3

18.2

36.1

17.9

25.7

39.7

14.0

31.7

42.3

10.6

Total population (male/female)

17.3

39.0

21.7

10.1

15.0

4.9

16.3

21.1

4.8

16.2

30.1

13.9

The male–female distribution for the year 2010 taken from the Preliminary Reports, while the total from Final Report

Small governorates have coefficients of variation increasing for all indicators except native population and female non-native population, indicating an increasing variability across governorates within the category: non-native receiving greater attention for their increasing variability in terms of population, especially male. This reflects an imbalance of population size in the governorates and which is increasing. Imbalances remain larger in case of population and households of non-native. In the medium sized governorates, coefficient of variation decreased in 2010, except in case of non-naitve population (both male and female), indicating a movement towards balance. In the large governorates, the coefficient of variation was increased for all the indicators. The large governorates having urban agglomerations and increasing levels of infrastructure development pull people for occupational purposes leading to an increase in the residential population.

Median centered coefficient of variation of population shows good performance in the ratio of population native to total and of households. The balance of naitve male to female during 2004 (7.6) has lost during 2010 (32.8), reflecting a rapid change in population settlements probably due to rural to urban migration of males. A rapid imbalance observed in case of native to non-native population, indicating immigration trends and urbanization. A growing imbalance of sex is also noted.

Conclusions and implications

Population size of an administrative unit influences local level demographics—sex ratio, ratio of native to non-native population, number of households and number of persons per household. Smaller administrative areas have a demographic profile different from that of larger areas, as seen from the data of Saudi Arabia. Population pressure increases developmental and infrastructural pressures, in turn, influencing the population characteristics. Larger governorates have more stable and developed administrative systems and structures, thus, having modern infrastructure and characteristics showing a balanced demography, in terms of sex ratio and persons per household. On the contrary, the medium sized units—the developing units—have accelerated growth of infrastructure requiring additional manpower, which is fulfilled through bringing people either from rural areas or from outside the country, thus altering population characteristics in line with masculinity, declining ratio of native to non-native population, changing household composition and thus persons per household. At the same time, small units usually are traditional, in terms of livelihoods and lifestyles that influences demographic structure and characteristics, but with exemption of qualifying as independent units.

The situation in Saudi Arabia follows a similar trend, but with the exceptions that the Kingdom has a huge share of foreign labor force; a majority of them lives in large administrative units. The exodus of foreign labor shows a diversion of demographic trends; high sex ratios, lesser proportion of native and smaller households. However, native population has characteristics close to the expectations—sex ratio close to 100 and has more than 6 persons per household.

Wide variations of administrative units in population size (male–female; native-non-native) and number of households, show an inequitable allocation caused due to the criterion set for qualifying an area to be recognized as an administrative unit. Reclassifications, in future, to equalizing units adopting a strict criterion (population size, geographic area combined with infrastructure development) shall balance this issue.

Changes happened from 2004 to 2010, on demographic characteristics of administrative areas reduce the gap, with exceptions in case of non-native population who constitutes the male dominated skewed adult labor force. The unprecedented increase in their numbers, despite the regulations in labor and immigration laws, during 2004–2010, reduces the ratio of native to total population, especially in Makkah Al-Mokarramah, Al-Riyadh, the Eastern Region and Al-Madina Al-Monawarah regions.

This research made possible through analyzing national census carried out during 2004 and 2010 explored few basic demographics with the aim of exposing the Kingdom’s grass root level planning and development as reflected in the local level demographic characteristics. Findings of this research have implications on both local level development plans as well as on improving or manipulating national demographic homogeneity. Developmental efforts are at a peak in the Kingdom even though with varying intensities across regions. While the East West Corridor (from Alkhobar to Jeddah governorate) develops faster, areas on the southern and northern side develop slowly, as shown by the data set, which may be addressed through population redistribution efforts with equitable developmental efforts. For the purpose, it is vital to improve the livelihoods and public infrastructure at poorly performing governorates, with an aim to integrate them into the main stream of the Kingdom so that people move to such localities for employment and residential purposes. Such efforts shall pave way for manipulating demographic characteristics like sex ratio, native-non-native ratio and persons per household—the three basic demographics discussed in this paper, which will raise the image of the Kingdom among the developed demographies of the world. It is also of importance to continue the collection of grass root level demographic data through Census and sample surveys at periodic intervals to create population based grass root level developmental plans, which will change the macro level indicators.

Declarations

Authors’ contributions

RK: overall advice, guidance. AAS: execution, data handling and analysis, interpretation of data. RS: review, revisions, improvisations, finalization. AA: monitoring the progress, review the drafts. IE: Support in analysis and interpretation of data. AM: support in analysis and interpretation of data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University, Riyadh for its funding of this research through the Research Group No. RGP-VPP-329.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Center for Population Studies, King Saud University
(2)
Karnataka Health Promotion Trust

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