# A characterization of some alternating groups A p+8 of degree p + 8 by OD

## Abstract

Let $$A_n$$ be an alternating group of degree n. We know that $$A_{10}$$ is 2-fold OD-characterizable and $$A_{125}$$ is 6-fold OD-characterizable. In this note, we first show that $$A_{189}$$ and $$A_{147}$$ are 14-fold and 7-fold OD-characterizable, respectively, and second show that certain groups $$A_{p+8}$$ with that $$\pi ((p+8)!)=\pi (p!)$$ and $$p<1000$$, are OD-characterizable. The first gives a negative answer to Open Problem of Kogani-Moghaddam and Moghaddamfar.

## Background

For a group, it means finite, and for a simple group, it is non-abelian. If G is a group, then the set of element orders of G is denoted by $$\omega (G)$$ and the set of prime divisors of G is denoted by $$\pi (G)$$. Related to the set $$\omega (G)$$ a graph is named a prime graph of G, which is written by GK(G). The vertex set of GK(G) is written by $$\pi (G)$$, and for different primes pq, there is an edge between the two vertices pq if $$p\cdot q\in \omega (G)$$, which is written by $$p\sim q$$. We let s(G) denote the number of connected components of the prime graph GK(G).

Moghaddamfar et al in 2005 gave the following notions which inspire some authors’ attention.

### Definition 1

(Moghaddamfar et al. 2005) Let G be a finite group and $$|G|=p_{1}^{\alpha _{1}}p_{2}^{\alpha _{2}}\cdots p_{k}^{\alpha _{k}}$$, where $$p_{i}$$s are primes and $$\alpha _{i}$$s are positive integers. For $$p\in \pi (G)$$, let $$\deg (p):=|\{q\in \pi (G)|p\sim q\}|$$, which we call the degree of p. We also define $$D(G):=(\deg (p_{1}),\deg (p_{2}),\ldots ,\deg (p_{k}))$$, where $$p_{1}<p_{2}<\cdots <p_{k}$$. We call D(G) the degree pattern of G.

For a given finite group M, write $$h_{OD}(M)$$ to denote the number of isomorphism classes of finite groups G such that (1) $$|G|=|M|$$ and (2) $$D(G)=D(M)$$.

### Definition 2

(Moghaddamfar et al. 2005) A finite group M is called k-fold OD-characterizable if $$h_{OD}(M)=k$$. Moreover, a 1-fold OD-characterizable group is simply called an OD-characterizable group.

Up to now, some groups are proved to be k-fold OD-characterizable and we can refer to the corresponding references of Akbari and Moghaddamfar (2015).

Concerning the alternating group G with $$s(G)=1$$, what’s the influence of OD on the structure of group? Recently, the following results are given.

### Theorem 3

The following statements hold:

1. (1)

The alternating group $$A_{10}$$ is 2-fold OD-characterizable (see Moghaddamfar and Zokayi 2010).

2. (2)

The alternating group $$A_{125}$$ is 6-fold OD-characterizable (see Liu and Zhang Submitted).

3. (3)

The alternating group $$A_{p+3}$$ except $$A_{10}$$ is OD-characterizable (see Hoseini and Moghaddamfar 2010; Kogani-Moghaddam and Moghaddamfar 2012; Liu 2015; Moghaddamfar and Rahbariyan 2011; Moghaddamfar and Zokayi 2009; Yan and Chen 2012; Yan et al. 2013; Zhang and Shi 2008; Mahmoudifar and Khosravi 2015).

4. (4)

All alternating groups $$A_{p+5}$$, where $$p+4$$ is a composite and $$p+6$$ is a prime and $$5\ne p\in \pi (1000!)$$, are OD-characterizable (see Yan et al. 2015).

In Moghaddamfar (2015), $$A_{189}$$ is at least 14-fold OD-characterizable. In this paper, we show the results as follows.

### Theorem 4

The following hold:

1. (1)

The alternating group $$A_{189}$$ of degree 189 is 14-fold OD-characterizable.

2. (2)

The alternating group $$A_{147}$$ of degree 147 is 7-fold OD-characterizable.

### Open Problem

(Kogani-Moghaddam and Moghaddamfar 2012) All alternating groups $$A_m$$, with $$m \ne 10$$, are OD-characterizable.

We also prove that some alternating groups $$A_{p+8}$$ with $$p<1000$$ are OD-characterizable.

### Theorem 5

Assume that p is a prime satisfying the following three conditions:

1. (1)

$$p\ne 139$$ and $$p\ne 181$$,

2. (2)

$$\pi ((p+8)!)=\pi (p!)$$,

3. (3)

$$p\le 997$$.

Then the alternating group $$A_{p+8}$$ of degree $$p+8$$ is OD-characterizable.

Let G be a finite group, then let $$\mathrm {Soc}(G)$$ denote the socle of G regarded as a subgroup which is generated by the minimal normal subgroup of G. Let $$\mathrm {Syl}_{p}(G)$$ be the set of all Sylow p-subgroups $$G_p$$ of G, where $$p\in \pi (G)$$. Let $$\mathrm {Aut}(G)$$ and $$\mathrm {Out}(G)$$ be the automorphism and outer-automorphism group of G, respectively. Let $$S_{n}$$ denote the symmetric groups of degree n. Let p be a prime divisor of a positive integer n, then the p-part of n is denoted by $$n_p$$, namely, $$n_p\Vert n$$. The other symbols are standard (see Conway et al. 1985, for instance).

## Some preliminary results

In this section, some preliminary results are given to prove the main theorem.

### Lemma 6

Let $$S=P_1\times \cdots \times P_r$$, where $$P_i$$s are isomorphic non-abelian simple groups. Then $$\mathrm {Aut}(S)=\mathrm {Aut}(P_1)\times \cdots \times \mathrm {Aut}(P_r).S_r$$.

### Proof

See Zavarnitsin (2000). $$\square$$

### Lemma 7

Let $$A_{n}$$ (or $$S_{n}$$) be an alternating (or a symmetric group) of degree n. Then the following hold.

1. (1)

Let $$p,q\in \pi (A_{n})$$ be odd primes. Then $$p\sim q$$ if and only if $$p+q\le n$$.

2. (2)

Let $$p\in \pi (A_{n})$$ be odd prime. Then $$2\sim p$$ if and only if $$p+4\le n$$.

3. (3)

Let $$p,q\in \pi (S_{n})$$. Then $$p\sim q$$ if and only if $$p+q\le n$$.

### Proof

It is easy to get from Zavarnitsin and Mazurov (1999). $$\square$$

### Lemma 8

The number of groups of order 189 is 13.

### Proof

See Western (1898). $$\square$$

### Lemma 9

Let P be a finite simple group and assume that r is the largest prime divisor of |P| with $$50< r<1000$$. Then for every prime number s satisfying the inequality $$(r - 1)/2 < s \le r$$, the order of the factor group $$\mathrm {Aut}(P)/P$$ is not divisible by s.

### Proof

It is easy to check this results by Conway et al. (1985) and Zavarnitsine (2009). $$\square$$

Let $$n=p_1^{\alpha _1}p_2^{\alpha _2}\cdots p_r^{\alpha _r}$$ where $$p_1,p_2,\ldots , p_r$$ are different primes and $$\alpha _1,\alpha _2,\ldots ,\alpha _r$$ are positive integers, then $$\exp (n,p_i)=\alpha _i$$ with $$p_{i}^{\alpha _i}\mid n$$ but $$p_i^{\alpha _i+1}\nmid n$$.

### Lemma 10

Let $$L:=A_{p+8}$$ be an alternating group of degree $$p+8$$ with that p is a prime and $$\pi (p+8)!=\pi (p!)$$. Let $$|\pi (A_{p+8})|=d$$ with d a positive integer. Then the following hold:

1. (1)

$$\deg (p)=4$$ and $$\deg (r)=d-1$$ for $$r\in \{2,3,5,7\}$$.

2. (2)

$$\exp (|L|,2)\le p+7$$.

3. (3)

$$\exp (|L|,r)=\sum \nolimits _{i=1}^{\infty }[\frac{p+8}{r^i}]$$ for each $$r\in \pi (L)\backslash \{2\}$$. Furthermore, $$\exp (|L|,r)<\frac{p+8}{2}$$ where $$5\le r\in \pi (L)$$. In particular, if $$r>[\frac{p+8}{2}]$$, then $$\exp (|L|,r)=1$$.

### Proof

By Lemma 7, it is easy to compute that for odd prime $$r, p\cdot r\in \omega (L)$$ if and only if $$p+r\le p+8$$. Hence $$r=3,5,7$$. If $$r=2$$, then since $$p+4\le p+8$$, then $$2\cdot p\in \omega (L)$$. This completes (1).

By Gaussian’s integer function,

\begin{aligned} \exp (|L|,2)&= \sum \limits _{i=1}^{\infty }\left[ \frac{p+8}{2^i}\right] -1\\&= \left( \left[ \frac{p+8}{2}\right] +\frac{p+8}{2^2}+ \left[ \frac{p+8}{2^3}\right] +\cdots \right) -1\\&\le \left( \frac{p+8}{2}+\frac{p+8}{2^2}+\frac{p+8}{2^3}+\cdots \right) -1\\&= p+7. \end{aligned}

This proves (2). Similarly, we can get (3). $$\square$$

### Lemma 11

Let am be positive integers. If $$(a,m)=1$$, then the equation $$a^x\equiv 1$$(mod m) has solutions. In particular, if the order of a modulo m is h(a), then h(a) divides $$\phi (m)$$ where $$\phi (m)$$ denotes the Euler’s function of m.

### Proof

See Theorem 8.12 of Burton (2002).$$\square$$

### Lemma 12

Let p be a prime and $$L:=A_{p+8}$$ be the alternating group of degree $$p+8$$ with that $$\pi ((p+8)!)=\pi (p!)$$. Given $$P\in \mathrm {Syl}_p(L)$$ and $$Q\in \mathrm {Syl}_q(L)$$ with $$11\le q<p\le 1000$$. Then the following results hold:

1. (1)

The order of $$N_L(P)$$ is not divisible by $$q^{s(q)}$$, where $$s(q)=\exp (|L|,q)$$.

2. (2)

If $$p\in \{113, 139, 199, 211, 241, 283, 293, 337, 467, 509, 619, 787, 797, 839, 863, 887, 953, 997\}$$, then $$|N_L(Q)|$$ is not divisible by p.

3. (3)

If $$p\in \{181, 317, 409, 421, 523, 547, 577, 631, 661, 691, 709, 811, 829, 919\}$$, then there is at least a prime r with that the order of r modulo p is less than $$p-1$$, where $$11\le r<p$$ and $$r\in \pi (p!)$$.

### Proof

By Lemma 11, the equation $$q^x\equiv 1$$(mod p) has solutions. Suppose the order of q modulo p is written by h(q). If $$h(q)=p-1$$, then q is a primitive root of modulo p. By Lemma 11, we have $$h(q)\mid p-1$$. By Lemma 10, we can get s(q). If $$h(q)>s(q)$$, then $$q^{h(q)}\mid |L|$$, a contradiction to the hypotheses. Then we can assume that $$h(q)\le s(q)$$. We can get the q and h(q) by GAP (2016) as Table 1 (Note that there is certain prime which has order $$h(q)<p-1$$, but $$h(q)>s(q)$$. Hence we do not list in this table).

By NC Theorem, the factor group $$\frac{N_L(P)}{C_L(P)}$$ is isomorphic to a subgroup of $$\mathrm {Aut}(P)\cong \mathbb {Z}_{p-1}$$ where $$\mathbb {Z}_n$$ is a cyclic group of order n. It follows that the order of $$\frac{N_L(P)}{C_L(P)}$$ is less than or equal to $$p-1$$. If $$11\le q<p$$ and $$q^{s(q)}\mid |N_L(P)|$$ where $$\exp (|L|,q)=s(q)$$, then $$q\mid |C_L(P)|$$. This forces $$q\sim p$$, a contradiction. This ends the proof of (1).

Next, assume that $$p\in \{ 113, 139, 199, 211, 241, 283, 293, 337, 467, 509, 619, 787, 797, 839, 863, 887, 953, 997\}$$. If p divides the order of $$N_L(Q)$$, then by NC theorem and Table 1, $$p\mid |C_L(Q)|$$ and so $$p\sim q$$, a contradiction. This proves (2). (3) follows from Table 1.

This completes the proof of Lemma 12. $$\square$$

## Proof of the main theorem

In this section, we first give the proof of Theorem 4 and second prove Theorem 5.

### Proof

We divides the proof into two steps.

Step 1 Let $$M=A_{189}$$. Assume that G is a finite group such that

$$|G|=|M|$$

and

$$D(G)=D(M).$$

By Lemma 7, the degree pattern GK(G) of G is connected, in particular, the degree pattern GK(G) is the same as the degree pattern of GK(M).

### Lemma 13

Let K be a maximal normal soluble subgroup of G. Then K is a $$\{2, 3, 5, 7\}$$-group, in particular, G is insoluble.

### Proof

Assume the contrary. First we show that K is a $$181'$$-group. We assume that K contains an element x of order 181. Let C be the centralizer of x in G and N be the normalizer of x in G. It is easy to see from D(G) that C is a $$\{2, 3, 5, 7, 181\}$$-group. By NC theorem, N/C is isomorphic to a subgroup of automorphism group $$\mathrm {Aut}(\langle x\rangle)\cong \mathbb {Z}_{2^2}\times \mathbb {Z}_{3^2}\times \mathbb {Z}_5$$, where $$\mathbb {Z}_n$$ is a cyclic group of order n. Hence, C is a $$\{2, 3, 5, 7, 181\}$$-group. By Frattini’s arguments, $$G=KN_G(\langle x\rangle)$$ and so $$\{11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179, 181\}\subseteq \pi (K)$$. Since K is soluble, G has a Hall subgroup H of order $$109\cdot 181$$. Obviously, $$109\nmid 181-1, H$$ is cyclic and so $$109\cdot 181\in \omega (G)$$ contradicting $$D(G)=D(M)$$.

Second, show that K is a $$p'$$-group, where $$p\in \{11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179\}$$. Let p be a prime divisor of |K| and P a Sylow p-subgroup of K. By Frattini’s arguments, $$G=KN_G(P)$$. It follows from Lemma 12, that 181 is a divisor of $$|N_G(P)|$$ if and only if $$p=19$$. If $$181\nmid |\mathrm {Aut}(P)|$$, then 181 divides the order of $$C_G(P)$$ and so there is an element of order $$p\cdot 181$$, a contradiction. On the other hand, $$p=19$$ and $$181\mid |\mathrm {Aut}(P)|$$, where P is the Sylow 19-subgroup of K. By Lemma 10, $$\exp (|L|,19)=9$$ and so $$|\frac{N_G(P)}{C_G(P)}|\mid \prod \nolimits _{i=1}^{9}19^{45}\cdot (19^i-1)$$. It is easy to get that $$101\nmid \mid \prod \nolimits _{i=1}^{9}19^{45}\cdot (19^i-1)$$. If $$101\mid |N_G(P)|$$, then 101 is a prime divisor of $$C_G(P)$$. Set $$C=C_G(P)$$ and $$C_{101}\in \mathrm {Syl}_{101}(C)$$. Also $$\exp (|L|,101)=1$$. By Frattini’s argument, $$N=CN_N(C_{101})$$ and so $$p\nmid |N_N(C_{101})|$$. Thus $$181\mid |C|$$ and so $$181\sim p$$, a contradiction. So $$101\nmid |N_G(P)|$$ and $$101\in \pi (K)$$. Let $$K_{101}\in \mathrm {Syl}_{101}(K)$$. Since $$G=KN_G(K_{101})$$, 101 divides the order of $$N_G(K_{101})$$, then $$101\nmid |K|$$, a contradiction. Therefore K is a $$\{2,3,5,7\}$$-group.

Obviously, $$G\ne K$$ and so G is insoluble. $$\square$$

### Lemma 14

The quotient group G / K is an almost simple group. More precisely, there is a normal series such that $$S\le G/K\le \mathrm {Aut}(S)$$, where S is isomorphic to $$A_{n}$$ for $$n\in \{181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189\}$$.

### Proof

Let $$H=G/K$$ and $$S=\mathrm {Soc}(H)$$. Then $$S=B_1\times \cdots \times B_n$$, where $$B_i$$’s are non-abelian simple groups and $$S\le H\le \mathrm {Aut}(S)$$. In what follows, we will prove that $$n=1$$ and $$S\cong A_{n}$$.

Suppose the contrary. Obviously, 181 does not divide the order of S, otherwise, there is an element of order $$109\cdot 181$$ contradicting $$D(G)=D(A_{189})$$. Hence, for every i, we have that $$B_i\in \mathfrak {F}_{179}$$, where $$\mathfrak {F}_p$$ is the set of non-abelian simple group S with that $$p\in \pi (S)\subseteq \{2,3,\cdots ,p\}$$ and p is a prime. But by Lemma 13, K is a $$\{2,3,5,7\}$$-group. Therefore $$181\in \pi (H)\subseteq \pi (\mathrm {Aut}(S))$$ and so 181 divides the order of $$\mathrm {Out}(S)$$. By Lemma 6, $$\mathrm {Out}(S)=\mathrm {Out}(P_1)\times \cdots \times \mathrm {Out}(P_r)$$, where the group $$P_i$$’s are satisfying $$S\cong P_1\times \cdots \times P_r$$. Therefore for some j 181 divides the order of an outer-automorphism group of a direct $$P_j$$ of t isomorphic simple group $$B_i$$. Since $$B_i\in \mathfrak {F}_{179}$$, the order of $$\mathrm {Out}(B_i)$$ is not divisible by 181 by Lemma 9. By Lemma 6, $$|\mathrm {Aut}(P_j)|=|\mathrm {Aut}(P_j)|^t\cdot t!$$. It means $$t\ge 181$$, and hence $$4^{181}\mid |G|$$, a contradiction. Thus $$n=1$$ and $$S=B_1$$.

By Lemma 13, we can assume that $$|S|=2^a\cdot 3^b\cdot 5^c\cdot 7^{d}\cdot 11^{18}\cdot 13^{15}\cdot 17^{11}\cdot 19^9\cdot 23^8\cdot 29^6\cdot 31^6\cdot 37^5\cdot 41^4\cdot 43^4\cdot 47^4\cdot 53^4\cdot 59^3\cdot 61^3\cdot 67^2\cdot 71^2\cdot 73^2\cdot 79^2\cdot 83^2\cdot 89^2\cdot 97\cdot 101\cdot 107\cdot 109\cdot 113\cdot 127\cdot 131\cdot 137\cdot 139\cdot 149\cdot 151\cdot 157\cdot 163\cdot 167\cdot 173\cdot 179\cdot 181$$, where $$2\le a \le 182, 1\le b\le 93, 1\le c\le 45$$ and $$1\le d\le 30$$. By Zavarnitsine (2009), the only possible group is isomorphic to $$A_n$$ with $$n\in \{181, 182, \ldots , 189\}$$.

This completes the proof. $$\square$$

We continue the proof of Theorem 4. By Lemma 14, S is isomorphic to $$A_{n}$$ with $$n\in \{181, 182, \cdots , 189\}$$, and $$S\le G/K\le \mathrm {Aut}(S)$$.

### Case 1

Let $$S\cong A_{181}$$.

Then $$A_{181}\le G/K\le S_{181}$$. If $$G/K\cong A_{181}$$, then $$|K|=182\cdot 183\cdot 184\cdot 185\cdot 186\cdot 187\cdot 188\cdot 189=2^6\cdot 3^5\cdot 5\cdot 7^2\cdot 11\cdot 13\cdot 17\cdot 23\cdot 31\cdot 37\cdot 47$$ and so $$11,13,17,23,31,37,47\in \pi (K)$$ contradicting to Lemma 13.

If $$G/K\cong S_{181}$$, we also have that 11, 13, 17 or 19 divides |K|, contradicting to Lemma 13.

Similarly we can rule out these cases “$$S\cong A_{n}$$ with $$n\in \{182, 183, \cdots , 187\}$$”.

### Case 2

Let $$S\cong A_{188}$$.

Then $$A_{188}\le G/K\le S_{188}$$. Therefore $$G/K\cong A_{188}$$ or $$G/K\cong S_{188}$$.

1. (1.1)

Let $$G/K\cong A_{188}$$. Then $$|K|=7\cdot 3^3$$. By Conway et al. (1985), the order of $$\mathrm {Out}(A_{188})$$ is 2 and the Schur multiplier of $$A_{188}$$ is 2. Then G is isomorphic to $$K\times A_{188}$$. By Lemma 8, there are 13 types of groups of order 189 satisfying that $$|G|=|M|$$ and $$D(G)=D(M)$$.

2. (1.2)

Let $$G/K\cong S_{188}$$. Since $$|S_{188}|_2=|S_{189}|_2>|A_{189}|_2$$, then we rule out this case.

### Case 3

Let $$S\cong A_{189}$$.

Then $$A_{189}\le G/K\le S_{189}$$. If $$G/K\cong A_{189}$$, then order consideration implies that G is isomorphic to $$A_{189}$$. If $$G/K\cong S_{189}$$, then as $$|S_{189}|_2>|A_{189}|_2=|G|_2$$, we rule out this case.

Step 2 Similarly as the proof of (1), the following results are given:

1. (1)

K is a maximal soluble normal $$\{2,3,5,7\}$$-group.

2. (2)

$$S\le G/K\le \mathrm {Aut}(S)$$, where S is isomorphic to one of the groups: $$A_{139}, A_{140}, \ldots , A_{146}$$ and $$A_{147}$$.

### Case 1

Let $$S\cong A_{139}$$.

Then $$A_{139}\le G/K\le S_{139}$$. If the former, then $$11\mid |K|$$, a contradiction. If the latter, we also have that $$11\mid |K|$$ and so we rule out.

Similarly we can rule out these cases “S is isomorphic to $$A_{140}, A_{141}, \ldots , A_{145}$$”.

### Case 2

Let $$S\cong A_{146}$$.

Then $$A_{146}\le G/K\le S_{146}$$. If $$G/K\cong A_{146}$$, then $$|K|=3\cdot 7^2$$. Since the order of $$\mathrm {Out}(A_{147})$$ is 2 and the Schur multiplier of $$A_{147}$$ is 2. Then G is isomorphic to $$K\times A_{146}$$. By GAP (2016), there are six types of groups of order 147. So there are 6 groups with the hypotheses: $$|G|=|A_{147}|$$ and $$D(G)=D(A_{147})$$. If $$G/K\cong S_{147}$$, then as $$|S_{146}|_2>|A_{146}|_2=|A_{147}|_2=|G|_2$$, we rule out.

### Case 3

Let $$S\cong A_{147}$$.

Then $$A_{147}\le G/K\le S_{147}$$. If the former, then $$K=1$$ and so $$G\cong A_{147}$$, the desired result. If the latter, then as $$|S_{147}|_2>|A_{147}|_2=|G|_2$$, we rule out.

We also can get that $$A_{147}$$ is 7-fold OD-characterizable.

This completes the proof of Theorem 4. $$\square$$

### Proof

Assume that $$|G|=|A_{p+8}|$$ and $$D(G)=D(A_{p+8})$$, then by Lemma 7, the degree pattern GK(G) of G is the same as $$GK(A_{p+8})$$ of $$A_{p+8}$$. Similarly as the proof of Theorem 4, the statements are gotten:

1. (1)

Let K be a maximal soluble group. Then K is a $$\{2, 3, 5, 7\}$$-group, in particular, G is insoluble.

2. (2)

There is a normal series such that $$S\le G/K\le \mathrm {Aut}(S)$$, where S is isomorphic to $$A_{p+r}$$ with that $$0\le r\le 8$$ and $$p\in \{$$113, 139, 199, 211, 241, 283, 293, 317, 337, 409, 421, 467, 509, 523, 547, 577, 619, 631, 661, 691, 709, 787, 797, 811, 829, 839, 863, 887, 919, 953, 997$$\}$$.

In what follows, we consider the case “$$p=113$$”.

1. (1)

$$S\cong A_{113}$$.

Then $$A_{113}\le G/K\le S_{113}$$. If $$G/K\cong A_{113}$$, then 11 divides the order of K, a contradiction. If $$G/K\cong S_{113}$$, then we also have that $$11\mid |K|$$, a contradiction. Similarly we can get a contradiction when S is isomorphic to one of $$A_{114}, A_{115}, A_{116}, A_{117}, A_{118}, A_{119}$$, and $$A_{120}$$.

2. (2)

Let $$S\cong A_{121}$$.

Then $$A_{121}\le G/K\cong S_{121}$$. If $$G/K\cong A_{121}$$, then $$K=1$$, the desired result. If $$G/K\cong S_{121}$$, then as $$|S_{121}|_2>|G|_2=|A_{121}|_2$$, a contradiction.

Similarly we can deal with these cases “$$p\in \{139, 199, 211, 241, 283, 293, 317, 337, 409, 421, 467, 509, 523, 547, 577, 619, 631, 661, 691, 709, 787, 797, 811, 829, 839, 863, 887, 919, 953, 997\}$$”.

This completes the proof of Theorem 5. $$\square$$

## Non OD-characterization of some alternating groups

Assume that p is a prime and m is an integer larger than 3. If $$\pi ((p+m)!)\subseteq \pi (p!)$$, then $$GK(A_{p+m})$$ is connected.

For the alternating group $$A_{p+m}, |A_{p+m}|=(p+m)|A_{p+m-1}|$$.

We shall use the notation v(n) to denote the number of types of groups of order n where n is a positive integer. We follows the method of Moghaddamfar (2015), $$h_{OD}(A_{p+m})\ge 1+v(p+m)$$ where $$\pi (A_{p+m})=\pi (A_p)$$ and $$m\ge 1$$ is a non-prime integer. We get the results as Table 2 which contains some results of Liu and Zhang (Submitted), Moghaddamfar (2015), Mahmoufifar and Khosravi (2014).

Note that v(n), the number of groups of given small order n can be computed by GAP (2016). The Gap programme is as followings.

gap> SmallGroupsInformation(n);

So we have the following conjecture.

Conjecture Assume that p is a prime and $$m\ge 6$$ is not a prime. If $$\pi ((p+m)!)\subseteq \pi (p!)$$ and $$\pi (p+m)\subseteq \pi (m!)$$, then $$A_{p+m}$$ is not OD-characterizable.

## Conclusion

In this paper, we have proved the following two results.

Result 1a: The alternating group $$A_{189}$$ of degree 189 is 14-fold OD-characterizable.

Result 1b: The alternating group $$A_{147}$$ of degree 147 is 7-fold OD-characterizable.

Result 2: Let p be a prime with the following three conditions:

1. (1)

$$p\ne 139$$ and $$p\ne 181$$,

2. (2)

$$\pi ((p+8)!)=\pi (p!)$$,

3. (3)

$$p\le 997$$.

Then the alternating group $$A_{p+8}$$ of degree $$p+8$$ is OD-characterizable.

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## Authors' contributions

SL and ZZ contributed this paper equally. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

### Acknowlegements

The first author was supported by the Opening Project of Sichuan Province University Key Laborstory of Bridge Non-destruction Detecting and Engineering Computing (Grant Nos: 2013QYJ02 and 2014QYJ04); the Scientific Research Project of Sichuan University of Science and Engineering (Grant No: 2014RC02) and by the department of Sichuan Province Eduction(Grant Nos: 15ZA0235 and 16ZA0256). The authors are very grateful for the helpful suggestions of the referee.

Dedicated to Prof Gui Min Wei on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

## Author information

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### Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shitian Liu.

Shitian Liu and Zhanghua Zhang are contributed equally to this work.

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Liu, S., Zhang, Z. A characterization of some alternating groups A p+8 of degree p + 8 by OD. SpringerPlus 5, 1128 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2763-7