 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method for solving a solid and porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation
SpringerPlus volume 5, Article number: 489 (2016)
Abstract
In this paper, Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method is introduced and used to solve the temperature distribution in a solid and porous fin with the temperature dependent internal heat generation for a fractional order energy balance equation. In this study, we assume heat generation as a variable of fin temperature for solid and porous fin and the heat transfer through porous media is simulated by using Darcy’s model. The results are presented for the temperature distribution for the range of values of parameters appeared in the mathematical formulation and also compared with numerical solutions in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. It is found that the proposed method is in good agreement with direct numerical solution.
Background
Fins are commonly used to facilitate the dissipation of heat from a heated wall to the surrounding environment. Examples of fin are the radiator in vehicles and heat exchangers in power plants. In electrical devices like motors and transformers, the generated heat can be efficiently transferred. In the study of heat transfer, fin is a surface, made by metallic material which is used to increase the rate of heat transfer to the environment. The rate of heat transfer depends on the surface area of the fin. Fins are extensively used to improve the rate of heat dissipation from a hot surface, especially in thermal engineering applications (Bergman et al.; Nield and Bejan).
In many thermal engineering applications, convective flow through porous media is mandatory for the investigation. Several numerical and analytical revisions has been conducted so far to afford a profound understanding of the transport system of the heat transfer inside the porous medium. Generally, high thermal conductivity porous substrates are employed to improve the rate of forced convection heat transfer in many engineering applications such as reactor heat exchangers, solar collectors and in cooling process (Alkam and AlNimr 1999). However, heat transfer in porous fins has attracted a lot of attention of researchers with a wide range of it’s applications, especially in recent years. Kiwan and AlNimr (2001) was the first person who introduced the concept of fins made of porous materials by introducing Darcy’s model (Kiwan 2007; Kiwan and Zeitoun 2008).
Now a days, Heat exchanger industries are looking for more compact and cost–effective heat exchanger manufacturing techniques which leads to use porous fins in enhance heat transfer (Kiwan 2007). The heattransfer enhancement between two parallelplate channels was investigated by adding porous fin through the channel (Hamdan and Moh’d 2010) and by adding porous insert to one side of the duct walls (Hamdan et al. 2000). Alkam et al. (2002) investigated the thermal analysis of natural convection porous fins. They studied all the geometric flow parameters that influence the temperature distribution in to a single parameter specified S _{ h }. They considered three cases: the infinite fin, a finite fin with an insulated tip and a finite fin with uninsulated tip. Similarly Gorla and Bakier (2011) discussed the thermal analysis of natural convection and radiation in the porous fin and showed that the radiation transfers more heat than a similar model without radiation. Hatami et al. (2013) studied the heat transfer through porous fin with different porous material and compared their results with the Differential Transform Method, Collocation Method and Least Square Method. They Hatami and Ganji (2013) also studied the thermal performance of circular convective–radiative porous fins with different section, shapes and materials. Ghasemi et al. (2014) used the Differential Transform Method for solving the nonlinear temperature distribution in solid and porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation. Patel and Meher (2015a, b) studied the fractional solution of longitudinal porous fin for the case of temperature distribution, efficiency and effectiveness and also analysed the variation of temperature distribution for a straight rectangular fin with powerlaw temperature dependent surface heat flux by using Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method.
It is revealed that, the concept of fractional derivative is more suitable for modeling real world problem than the local derivative. Many researchers have devoted their attention in developing new definition of fractional derivative (Atangana 2016). Baskonus and Bulut (2015) applied the fractional Adams–Bashforth–Moulton Method for obtaining the numerical solutions of some linear and nonlinear fractional ordinary differential equations. Baskonus and Bulut (2015) studied it to obtain some new analytical solutions to the (1 + 1)dimensional nonlinear Dispersive Modified Benjamin Bona Mahony equation by using modified expfunction method. Roshid et al. (2014) studied solitary wave solutions for vakhnenkoparkes equation via expfunction and Exp \((\phi (\xi ))\)—expansion method. Also they Roshid et al. (2014) studied traveling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equation via new extended \((G^{\prime }/G)\)—expansion method.
In the present study, we fractionalize the energy balance equation in order to understand the anomalous behavior of this system and to find the temperature distribution in solid and porous fin by using Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method.
Preliminaries
Definitions of Caputo fractional derivative
In this part of the paper it would be useful to introduce some definitions and properties of the fractional calculus theory. There are several definitions of fractional derivatives of order \(\alpha >0\) (Miller and Ross; Srivastava et al. 2014). The two most commonly used definitions are RiemannLiouville and Caputo.
Definition
The RiemannLiouville fractional integral of fractional order is defined as Miller and Ross
where \(R^{+}\) is the set of positive real numbers and \(\Gamma (\cdot )\) is the gamma function.
Definition
The fractional derivative of f(t) in the Caputo sense is defined by
where the parameter α is the order of the derivative and is allowed to be real or even complex. Here N is the set of natural numbers. In this paper only real and positive α will be considered. The properties underpinning the use of the Caputo derivative can be found in Atangana (2016), Atangana and Alqahtani (2016) and Atangana and Baleanu (2016).
Basics of sumudu transform method
The sumudu transform is a new integral transform (Kadem and Baleanu 2012; Atangana and Baleanu 2013; Jarad et al. 2012) which is a little known and not widely used whose defined for the functions of exponential order.
Definition
The sumudu transform of a function f(t), defined for all real numbers \(t \ge 0\), is the function F(u), defined by Watugala (1993)
Definition
Sumudu transform of function derivatives is defined as Belgacem and Karaballi (2006)
Definition
Sumudu transform of the Caputo fractional derivative is defined as Belgacem and Karaballi (2006)
Theorem
Let G(u) be the sumudu transform of f(t) such that

1.
\(\left( G(1/s)/s\right)\) is a meromorphic function, with singularities having \({\mathrm{Re}} [s] \le \gamma ;\)

2.
There exist a circular region \(\gamma\) with radius R and positive constants M and K with \(\left {G(1/s)/s} \right < M{R^{  K}}\), then the function f(t) is given by
For the proof see Belgacem and Karaballi (2006).
Formulation of Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method (ADSTM)
Consider a general fractional nonlinear nonhomogeneous differential equation with satisfying the initial condition of the form, as,
subject to the initial condition
where \(\frac{d^{\alpha } }{d\zeta ^{\alpha } }\) denotes without loss of generality the Caputo fraction derivative operator, R is the linear differential operator, N represents the nonlinear differential operator, and \(g(\zeta )\) is the source term.
On applying the sumudu transform and the Caputo fractional derivative in Eq. (7), it obtains
Sumudu inverse transform of Eq. (9), gives
where \(\theta (0) = K\) is prescribed initial conditions.
Using Adomian decomposition method which obtains the approximate solution of Eq. (10) in a series form as Adomian
and the nonlinear term can be expressed as a sum of Adomian Polynomials
where the Adomian polynomials \(A_{n} (\theta )\), depends upon the solution components \(\theta _{0} , \theta _{1} , \theta _{2},\ldots , \theta _{n}\), can be defined as follows
On substituting Eqs. (11) and (12) in Eq. (10), it obtains
The resulting Eq. (14) is the coupling of the Adomian decomposition method and the sumudu transform. On comparing the coefficients of like powers of \(\lambda\), the recursive relation of Eq (14) can be written as
Since \(\sum _{n=0}^{\infty } \theta _{n} (\zeta )\) is a rapidly converging series, the partial sum \(\phi _{m}=\sum _{i=0}^{m1} \theta _{i} (\zeta )\) is our approximant to the solution (Adomian).
Problem description
Here we considered two cases, namely (1) solid fin and (2) porous fin to study the fin temperature distribution in longitudinal fin with rectangular profile.
Case 1: solid fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation and constant thermal conductivity
Consider a longitudinal fin with a constant rectangular profile, section area A, length L, perimeter P, thermal conductivity k, and heat generation \(\bar{Q}\). Fin is attached to a surface with constant temperature \(T_{b}\) and losses heat to the surrounding medium with temperature \(T_{\infty }\) through a constant convective heat transfer coefficient h. Here we assumed that the temperature variation in the transfer direction is negligible, so heat conduction occurs only in the longitudinal direction (x direction). A schematic diagram of the described fin is shown in Fig. 1.
The governing differential equation and boundary condition for this problem can be written as Ghasemi et al. (2014)
Here it is assumed that the temperature heat generation in the solid fin varies with temperature \(T_{\infty }\),that can be defined as
Where \(\bar{Q}_{\infty }\) is the internal heat generation at temperature \(T_{\infty }\). On introducing the dimensionless variables
The dimensionless form of Eqs. (16)–(18) can be written as
To understand the anomalous behavior of this system, we fractionalize the energy balance Eq. (21) into fractional order (\(\alpha >0\)) in order to find the fin temperature in solid fins as,
With boundary conditions
Now, applying sumudu transform on both sides of Eq. (24), we obtain
taking inverse sumudu transform on both side of Eq. (26), we get
Now on applying Adomian decomposition method it obtains,
Comparing the coefficients of \(\lambda\) in Eq. (28), we have
Summing these terms, the final temperature field \(\theta \left( \zeta \right)\), is calculated up to five terms as follows
Equation (29) represents the expression for finding the temperature distribution in solid fin of fractional order energy balance Eq. (24), where the coefficient K denotes the fin tip temperature, and it can be determined at the boundary condition \(\left. \theta \right _{\zeta =1} =1\).
Case 2: porous fin with the temperature dependent internal heat generation
Here the energy balance equation for rectangular porous profile fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation can be written as
The mass flow rate of the fluid passing through the porous material can be written as
From Darcy’s model, the passage velocity (Hatami et al. 2013) is
On substituting Eqs. (31) and (32) into Eq. (30), it gives
As \(\Delta x\rightarrow 0\), Eq. (33) becomes
Also, from Fourier’s law of conduction
where \(k_{eff}\) is the effective thermal conductivity of the porous fin, that can be obtained from the following equation (Hatami et al. 2013)
Where \(\psi\) is the porosity of the porous fin. On substituting Eq. (35) into Eq. (34), it gives
On introducing the dimensionless variables and numbers
The dimensionless form of Eq. (37) can be written as
with its boundary condition
where M is a convection parameter that indicates the effect of surface convecting of the fin and \(\xi\) is a porous parameter that indicates the effect of the permeability of the porous medium as well as the buoyancy effect so higher the value of \(\xi\) indicates higher permeability of the porous medium or higher buoyancy forces.
To understand the anomalous behaviour of this system, we fractionalize the energy balance Eq. (39) into fractional order (\(\alpha >0\)) in order to find the fin temperature in porous fins as,
with boundary conditions
Now, again applying sumudu transform on both sides of Eq. (41), it obtains
Applying Inverse sumudu transfer on both sides, we get
by applying Adomian Decomposition Method, it obtains the following equation
where \(A_{n} (\theta )\) is the nonlinear term which can be determined by using Eq. (13). The first few components of the adomian’s polynomial for corrosponding nonlinear terms are given by
On comparing the coefficients of like powers of \(\lambda\) in Eq. (45), we get decomposition components as
By solving above equations, we get
The approximate solution of \(\theta \left( \zeta \right)\) up to four terms becomes
where value of K can be determined at the boundary condition \(\left. \theta \right _{\zeta =1} =1\) using Eq. (47). Since a constant K is assumed as an initial guess, it automatically satisfies the given boundary condition.
Stability analysis via fixed point theorem
Let \(\left( {X,\left\ \cdot \right\ } \right)\) be a Banach space and H a selfmap of X. Let \(\theta _{n+1} = f(H,\theta _{n})\) be particular recursive procedure. Suppose that F(H) the fixed point set of H has at lease one element and that \(\theta _{n}\) converges to a point \(p \in F(H)\). Let \({\theta _{n}\subseteq X}\) and define \({e_n} = \left\ {{\theta _{n + 1}}  f(H,{\theta _n})} \right\\). If \(\mathop {\lim }\limits _{n \rightarrow \infty } {\theta ^n} = p\), then the iteration \(\theta _{n+1}=f(H,\theta _{n})\) is said to be Hstable. Without any loss of generality, we must assume that, our sequence \({\theta _{n}}\) has an upper boundary; otherwise we cannot expect the possibility of convergence. If all these conditions are satisfied for \(\theta _{n+1}=H \theta _{n}\) which is known as Picard’s iteration, then the iteration will be HStable. Now we state the following theorem (Atangana 2016).
Theorem 1
Let \(\left( {X,\left\ \right\ } \right)\) be a Banach space and H a selfmap of X satisfying
for all x, y in X where \(0 \le C.\;0 \le c < 1.\) Then H is Picard HStable.
Let the following succession correlate to the nonlinear fractional order energy balance equation (Eq. 46),
Theorem
Let T be a selfmap defined as
is Tstable in \(L^{2}(a, b)\) if \(\left\{ \beta _{1}+\beta _{1}\kappa \right\} < 1.\)
Proof
The first step of the proof will consist on showing that T has a fixed point. To achieve this, we evaluate the following for all \((n,k)\in N \times N\)
Using the linearity property of the inverse sumudu transform, we obtain
Using the triangle inequality for the norm, we get
The above can be further be transformed using the property of norm and integral as follows
The evaluation of Eq. (53) can be done as follows
and
where \(\left\ \xi \right\ \beta _2.\) Now putting together Eqs. (54) and (55) into Eq. (53), we obtain the following
with \(\left\{ {{\beta _1} + {\beta _2}\kappa } \right\} < 1, \forall \beta _1 \beta _2.\) Hence, the nonlinear Tself mapping has a fixed point. This completes the proof. Further we show that, T satisfies the condition in Theorem 1, Now for
shows that conditions of this theorem holds for the nonlinear mapping T. Since all condition in Theorem 1 hold for the defined nonlinear mapping T. Hence, T is Picard’s Tstable. This completes the proof of this theorem. \(\square\)
Results and discussion
The purpose of this work is to observe the simultaneous effects of the governing parameters and the different fractional values \(\alpha\) on solid and porous fins. The range of thermal and physical parameters selected the present work is shown in Table 1.
Solid fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation and constant thermal conductivity
Temperature distribution for this case (temperature dependent heat generation and constant thermal conductivity) is shown in Figs. 2 and 3 where M = 1 that is common in fin design.
Figure 2 shows the temperature distribution for this state and \(I_{G} =G=0.2\), \(I_{G} =G=0.4\) and \(I_{G} =0.4\), G = 0.6. This choice of parameters represents a fin with moderate temperature dependent heat generation and the thermal conductivity variation of 20 % between the base and the surrounding coolant temperatures that are often used in nuclear rods.
It is shown in Figs. 2 and 3 that temperature of the fin increases by increasing the value of \(I_{G}\) and G because of increasing in heat generation. The comparison of obtained results with numerical results reveals that ADSTM has good efficiency and accuracy.
Figure 3 shows the temperature distribution for this state and \(I_{G} =G=0.2, I_{G} =G=0.4\) and \(I_{G} =0.4\), G = 0.6 and for the different fractional order value of \(\alpha\) = 1.75, 1.5 and 1.25. Further, the nature of the graphs depicts that, considered value of \(\alpha\) represents the point of convergence under the given range of interval between 1 and 2.
Porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation
Figure 4 shows the comparison between the numerical solution and the ADSTM solution for temperature distribution when M = 1, G = 0.4, \(I_{G} =0.6\) and for the different value of \(\xi\) and \(\alpha =2\). When the porous parameter \(\xi\) increases, it can be noticed from Fig. 5 that, a declines in fin temperature which causes stronger cooling results decrease in temperature distribution. Figure 5 shows the variation of temperature distribution of porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation when M = 1, G = 0.4, \(I_{G} =0.6\) and for the different value of \(\xi\) and for \(\alpha\) = 1.75, 1.5, 1.25.
The variation of the temperature distribution along the fin for the different values of internal heat generation, \(I_{G}\) when M = 1, G = 0.4, \(\zeta =0.4\) and for \(\alpha =2\) is illustrated in Fig. 6. It is observed from figure that, if the internal heat generation increases then fin temperature be increases. Figure 7 shows the variation of temperature distribution of porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation when M = 1, G = 0.4, \(\xi =0.4\) and for the different value of \(I_{G}\) and for \(\alpha =1.75, 1.5, 1.25\).
Figure 8 shows the comparison between the numerical solution and the ADSTM solution for temperature distribution when M = 1, \(I_{G} =0.4, \xi =0.4\) and for the different value of G and for \(\alpha =2\).
Figure 9 shows the variation of temperature distribution of porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation when M = 1, \(I_{G} =0.4, \xi =0.4\) and for the different value of G and for \(\alpha =1.75, 1.5, 1.25\).
Figure 10 shows the comparison between the numerical solution and ADSTM solution for temperature distribution when G = 0.4, \(I_{G} =0.6, \xi =0.4\) and for the different value of M and for \(\alpha =2\). At last, it can be concluded that the analytical results correspond exactly with the numerical results. This means that the ADSTM has a high aptitude in solving highly nonlinear initial and boundary value problems without involving linearization. Figure 11 shows the variation of temperature distribution of porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation when G = 0.4, \(I_{G} =0.6, \xi =0.4\) and for the different value of M and for \(\alpha =1.75, 1.5, 1.25\).
Conclusion
In this study, the heat transfer in rectangular solid and porous fin with the temperature dependent internal heat generation is analyzed by using ADSTM and used the concept of Tstable mapping and the fixed point theorem to prove the stability of ADSTM. Here, it is shown that, ADSTM provide a simple, accurate and appropriate technique for simulating the heat transfer in solid and porous fin in a fractional order energy balance equation. The results shows that the temperature distribution strongly depends on different parameter in solid fin as well as on Darcy’s number in porous fin and also on the fractional parameter.
References
Adomian G (1994) Solving frontier problems of physics: the decomposition method, vol 60. Springer, Netherlands
Alkam M, AlNimr M, Hamdan M (2002) On forced convection in channels partially filled with porous substrates. Heat Mass Transf 38(4–5):337–342
Alkam M, AlNimr M (1999) Solar collectors with tubes partially filled with porous substrates. J Sol Energy Eng 121(1):20–24
Atangana A (2016) On the new fractional derivative and application to nonlinear fisher’s reaction–diffusion equation. Appl Math Comput 273:948–956
Atangana A, Alqahtani RT (2016) Modelling the spread of river blindness disease via the caputo fractional derivative and the betaderivative. Entropy 18(2):40
Atangana A, Baleanu D (2013) Nonlinear fractional Jaulent–Miodek and Whitham–Broer–Kaup equations within sumudu transform. In: Abstract and applied analysis, vol 2013. Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Atangana A, Baleanu D (2016) New fractional derivatives with nonlocal and nonsingular kernel: theory and application to heat transfer model. arXiv preprint arXiv:1602.03408
Baskonus HM, Bulut H (2015) On the numerical solutions of some fractional ordinary differential equations by fractional Adams–Bashforth–Moulton method. Open Math 13(1):547–556
Baskonus HM, Bulut H (2015) Analytical studies on the (1 + 1)dimensional nonlinear dispersive modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahony equation defined by seismic sea waves. Waves Random Complex Media 25(4):576–586
Belgacem FBM, Karaballi AA (2006) Sumudu transform fundamental properties investigations and applications. Int J Stoch Anal 2006:1–23
Bergman TL, Incropera FP, Lavine AS, Dewitt DP (2011) Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 7th edn. Wiley, New Jersey
Ghasemi S, Valipour P, Hatami M, Ganji D (2014) Heat transfer study on solid and porous convective fins with temperaturedependent heat generation using efficient analytical method. J Cent South Univ 21(12):4592–4598
Gorla RSR, Bakier A (2011) Thermal analysis of natural convection and radiation in porous fins. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 38(5):638–645
Hamdan M, AlNimr M, Alkam M (2000) Enhancing forced convection by inserting porous substrate in the core of a parallelplate channel. Int J Numer Methods Heat Fluid Flow 10(5):502–518
Hamdan M, Moh’d AAN (2010) The use of porous fins for heat transfer augmentation in parallelplate channels. Transp Porous Media 84(2):409–420
Hatami M, Hasanpour A, Ganji D (2013) Heat transfer study through porous fins (si 3 n 4 and al) with temperaturedependent heat generation. Energy Convers Manag 74:9–16
Hatami M, Ganji D (2013) Thermal performance of circular convective–radiative porous fins with different section shapes and materials. Energy Convers Manag 76:185–193
Jarad F, Bayram K, Abdeljawad T, Baleanu D (2012) On the discrete sumudu transform. Rom Rep Phys 64(2):347–356
Kadem A, Baleanu D (2012) Twodimensional transport equation as fredholm integral equation. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 17(2):530–535
Kiwan S (2007) Effect of radiative losses on the heat transfer from porous fins. Int J Therm Sci 46(10):1046–1055
Kiwan S (2007) Thermal analysis of natural convection porous fins. Transp Porous Media 67(1):17–29
Kiwan S, AlNimr M (2001) Using porous fins for heat transfer enhancement. Tc 1:2
Kiwan S, Zeitoun O (2008) Natural convection in a horizontal cylindrical annulus using porous fins. Int J Numer Methods Heat Fluid Flow 18(5):618–634
Miller KS, Ross B (1993) An introduction to the fractional calculus and fractional differential equations. Wiley, New York
Nield DA, Bejan A (2006) Convection in porous media. Springer, New York
Patel T, Meher R (2015) A study on temperature distribution, efficiency and effectiveness of longitudinal porous fins by using adomian decomposition sumudu transform method. Procedia Eng 127:751–758
Patel T, Meher R (2015) Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method for solving fully nonlinear fractional order powerlaw fintype problems. Int J Math Comput 27(2):7–16
Roshid HO, Kabir MR, Bhowmik RC, Datta BK (2014) Investigation of solitary wave solutions for Vakhnenko–Parkes equation via expfunction and exp ( \(\phi\) (\(\xi\)))expansion method. SpringerPlus 3(1):1–10
Roshid HO, Hoque MF, Akbar MA (2014) New extended (\(g^{\prime }/g\))expansion method for traveling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (npdes) in mathematical physics. Ital J Pure Appl Math 33:175–190
Srivastava H, Golmankhaneh AK, Baleanu D, Yang XJ (2014) Local fractional sumudu transform with application to IVPs on cantor sets. In: Abstract and applied analysis, vol 2014. Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Watugala G (1993) Sumudu transform: a new integral transform to solve differential equations and control engineering problems. Integr Educ 24(1):35–43
Authors' contributions
This work was carried out by the two authors, in collaboration. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The authors are thankful to Applied Mathematics and Humanities Department of S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat for the scholarship, encouragement and facilities.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this article
Patel, T., Meher, R. Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method for solving a solid and porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation. SpringerPlus 5, 489 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s4006401621068
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s4006401621068
Keywords
 Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method
 Fractional order differential equation
 Caputo fractional derivative
 Porous fin
 Temperature dependent thermal conductivity
 Internal heat generation
 Thermal analysis