- Open Access
Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic history of the peri-Gondwana Calabria–Peloritani Terrane inferred from a review of zircon chronology
© Fornelli et al. 2016
- Received: 21 January 2016
- Accepted: 15 February 2016
- Published: 29 February 2016
U–Pb analyses of zircon from ten samples of augen gneisses, eight mafic and intermediate metaigneous rocks and six metasediments from some tectonic domains along the Calabria–Peloritani Terrane (Southern Italy) contribute to knowledge of peri-Gondwanan evolution from Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic times. All samples were equilibrated under amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. The zircon grains of all considered samples preserve a Proterozoic memory suggestive of detrital, metamorphic and igneous origin. The available data fit a frame involving: (1) Neoproterozoic detrital input from cratonic areas of Gondwana; (2) Pan-African/Cadomian assemblage of blocks derived from East and West African Craton; (3) metamorphism and bimodal magmatism between 535 and 579 Ma, within an active margin setting; (4) rifting and opening of Ordovician basins fed by detrital input from the assembled Cadomian blocks. The Paleozoic basins evolved through sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism during the Variscan orogeny involving Palaeozoic and pre-Paleozoic blocks. The Proterozoic zircon records decidedly decrease in the high grade metamorphic rocks affected by Variscan pervasive partial melting.
- U–Pb zircon ages
- Pre-Cambrian to Permian tectonothermal events
- Detrital provenance
- Calabria–Peloritani Terrane
Amalgamation and break up of supercontinents and superterranes (Rodinia, Gondwana, Pangea) characterize the history of the Earth between Neoproteozoic and Palaeozoic times. All geological processes known today, starting with Rodinia fragmentation and culminating with the assemblage of Pangea, have been the focus of research in recent decades (e.g. von Raumer et al. 2013, 2015 and references therein). Records of magmatism, sedimentation, metamorphism and anatexis accompanying the evolution of the superterrane Gondwana are preserved in some tectonic units of the nappe structured Calabria–Peloritani Terrane (CPT, Southern Italy) reworked by the Variscan and Alpine orogenies. This terrane, according to the most recent paleogeographic reconstructions, was one of the peri-Gondwanan blocks comprising the “Galatian superterrane” (Stampfli et al. 2011; von Raumer et al. 2013 and references therein).
A large number of geochronological data obtained using microbeam techniques (SIMS, LA-ICP-MS, SHRIMP), together with previous data collected through traditional methods (ID-Tims) are today available on different rock types exposed in this area (e.g. Schenk 1980, 1989, 1990; Senesi 1999; Trombetta et al. 2004; Micheletti et al. 2007, 2008, 2011; Langone 2008; Laurita et al. 2015; Fiannacca et al. 2008, 2013; Fornelli et al. 2011a, 2014; Williams et al. 2012). These data, together with the zircon grain growth textures revealed by SEM imaging (cathodoluminescence-CL and variable pressure secondary electron-VPSED) and the REE–U–Th distribution in the zircon domains, can contribute to: (1) estimate the age and nature of magmatic products, (2) infer the minimum sedimentation ages of the protoliths of some metasedimentary rock types, (3) determine the role of temperature and fluids or melts on the resetting or new growth of zircon and, finally, (4) establish the provenance of detrital materials. In this paper, the available data have been reappraised to provide a synthetic frame in which the above processes occurred. A synthesis of available age data in Calabria Peloritani Terrane, dispersed in many papers, could contribute to clarify the paleogeographic renconstruction of peri-Gondwanan blocks.
All rocks experienced Variscan metamorphism under conditions ranging from amphibolite (Castagna, Mandatoriccio and Aspromonte–Peloritani Unit) to granulite facies (high-grade metamorphic complex).
The Calabria–Peloritani Terrane (CPT) is an “exotic terrane” (Bonardi et al. 2001) comprising a Pre-Mesozoic basement consisting of different tectonic units affected by Variscan metamorphism and stacked during the Alpine orogenesis. It includes the crystalline massifs of Calabria (Sila, Serre and Aspromonte) and Peloritani Mountains of Sicily (Fig. 1). In addition, slivers of garnet-biotite gneisses considered as equivalent to the high-grade metasediments of the Serre massif, occur in the Alpine tectonic mélange at the Calabria–Lucania boundary (Pollino Massif insert Fig. 1).
The nappe belt includes, in northern Calabria, from the top to the bottom: (1) pre-Triassic basements with metamorphic and igneous rocks pertaining to the south-European Variscan belt; (2) fragments of Jurassic to lower Cretaceous Tethyan oceanic crust affected by Alpine HP/LT metamorphism; and (3) Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary rocks at the bottom (e.g. Amodio Morelli et al. 1976; Bouillin et al. 1984). In Southern Calabria (Serre and Aspromonte Massifs) only pre-Triassic continental crustal units are present.
The Peloritani Mountains consist of a set of south-verging nappes of Variscan basement rocks with metamorphic grade increasing towards the top with interposed fragments of Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentary covers (Atzori and Vezzani 1974; Lentini and Vezzani 1975). They belong to two complexes (Fig. 1): (1) the Lower Domain, exposed in the southern part of the Peloritani Belt, consisting of very low-grade metamorphic volcano-sedimentary Cambrian–Carboniferous sequences, covered by Mesozoic–Cenozoic sediments, (2) the Upper Domain, in the north–east part of the belt, consisting of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks in which Aspromonte–Peloritani unit represents the highest tectonic unit. In Fig. 1 the distribution of the continental crust domains under study in this paper is mapped together with the sample location. The garnet-biotite gneiss sample derives from the Alpine tectonic mélange at the Calabria–Lucania boundary (Pollino Massif insert Fig. 1).
U–Pb concordant and subconcordant data on zircon in the studied rocks from CPT continental crust and Pollino Massif
Devonian-lower permian ages
Post lower permian ages
High grade metamorphic complex
GO 100 augen gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2007)
2502 ± 19, 2404 ± 92, 1760 ± 46, 752 ± 6, 617 ± 23, 575 ± 4, 572 ± 6, 571 ± 4
552 ± 9, 545 ± 4,
539 ± 7, 537 ± 4
494 ± 14, 462 ± 7
Tur 3 restitic metagreywacke
(Micheletti et al. 2008)
595 ± 12
483 ± 9
325 ± 9, 316 ± 9,308 ± 9,
297 ± 4 (n = 4),
275 ± 8
257 ± 7
GO 182 migmatitic metapelite (Micheletti et al. 2008)
654 ± 15
1113 ± 10
496 ± 11
395 ± 9
280 ± 2 (n = 18)
Tur 17 felsic granulite
(Micheletti et al. 2008)
1688 ± 36
585 ± 9
329 ± 14
286 ± 4 (n = 8)
249 ± 4
Tur 76A mafic granulite
513 ± 9
466 ± 15, 436 ± 15,
434 ± 6, 413 ± 6
345 ± 4, 298 ± 10,
295 ± 9, 291 ± 6,
285 ± 17, 278 ± 6
Grt3 mafic granulite
(Fornelli et al. 2014)
357 ± 11,
334 ± 12-300 ± 9 (n = 8)
MFS 3 metagabbro
(Micheletti et al. 2008)
584 ± 24, 506 ± 21
453 ± 19
377 ± 5
282 ± 5 (n = 4)
263 ± 8, 231 ± 5
Tur 49 meta-quartz-diorite
(Fornelli et al. 2011b)
744 ± 20
574 ± 18
457 ± 13, 438 ± 13
380 ± 11
347 ± 3 (n = 10)
319 ± 3 (n = 7)
296 ± 4 (n = 5)
Tur 32 metabasite interleaved with
(Fornelli et al. 2011b)
593 ± 14, 564 ± 17
483 ± 12, 464 ± 12,
451 ± 11, 418 ± 14
370 ± 6 (n = 3)
340 ± 7 (n = 2)
321 ± 3 (n = 9)
300 ± 3 (n = 6)
279 ± 8, 277 ± 7
260 ± 6, 252 ± 8
Tur 46 metabasite interleaved with migmatitic metapelites
(Fornelli et al. 2011b)
609 ± 29
537 ± 15, 505 ± 11
382 ± 9
318 ± 5 (n = 2)
303 ± 4 (n = 4)
294 ± 4 (n = 3)
279 ± 10
(Laurita et al. 2015)
1789 ± 31, 1779 ± 31,
1111 ± 44–836 ± 19
(n = 12), 701 ± 24,
696 ± 17, 610 ± 16
586 ± 17-513 ± 17 (n = 6)
475 ± 16, 457 ± 12
303 ± 8-280 ± 11 (n = 5)
255 ± 11
GO 6 augen gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2007)
2216 ± 56, 748 ± 6, 621 ± 5, 585 ± 5
562 ± 5, 556 ± 5, 548 ± 5, 547 ± 4,543 ± 4, 542 ± 5, 541 ± 7, 515 ± 10
464 ± 4
GO 35 augen gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2007)
2069 ± 52, 588 ± 17,
566 ± 16
556 ± 16,
552 ± 16, 544 ± 16
GO 39 fine grained leucocratic gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2011)
858 ± 17, 632 ± 15,
631 ± 16
533 ± 11 (n = 4)
473 ± 14, 459 ± 10,
413 ± 9
302 ± 12, 302 ± 8,
296 ± 9, 294 ± 8,
287 ± 9, 286 ± 7,
285 ± 7, 282 ± 7,
281 ± 7, 275 ± 8,
275 ± 7 (n = 2), 274 ± 8
265 ± 6, 261 ± 6,
259 ± 11
GO 95 fine grained leucocratic gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2011)
801 ± 19, 633 ± 14
547 ± 3 (n = 4), 521 ± 12,
509 ± 14, 504 ± 12, 494 ± 14
452 ± 13, 437 ± 10,
425 ± 11
345 ± 9
259 ± 4 (n = 6)
2506 ± 43–604 ± 24
(n = 30)
587 ± 14–511 ± 13
(n = 8)
485 ± 13–428 ± 10
(n = 8)
VSerre Massifariscan granitoids
Tur 37b Quartz-monzodiorite dike
(Fornelli et al. 2011b)
368 ± 11, 367 ± 9
323 ± 5 (n = 3)
Upper domain Aspromonte–Peloritani unit
ADR 5 augen gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2007)
917 ± 26, 614 ± 10, 611 ± 11,
597 ± 10, 586 ± 10
577 ± 10, 568 ± 10,
566 ± 13, 550 ± 16, 527 ± 12
ADR 18 augen gneiss
(Micheletti et al. 2007)
623 ± 18, 617 ± 17, 565 ± 16
548 ± 16, 531 ± 15, 526 ± 15, 522 ± 15
446 ± 13
(Williams et al. 2012)
2672 ± 9–611 ± 6
(n = 46)
566 ± 15–535 ± 4
(n = 14)
FIU-11 augen gneiss
2627 ± 25–607 ± 5
(n = 12)
578 ± 10–516 ± 4
(n = 23)
MV-15 augen gneiss
2455 ± 9–634 ± 14
(n = 12)
557 ± 6–528 ± 7
(n = 25)
TC-9 augen gneiss
(Fiannacca et al. 2013)
581 ± 3–528 ± 4
(n = 35)
Ta-Pu1-2-3, Ta-Cs, Tao
Felsic porphyroids and andesites
(Trombetta et al. 2004)
ID - TIMS data
2013 ± 1, 1140 ± 10
461 ± 10–432 ± 15
(n = 16)
401 ± 20, 367 ± 13
The Castagna Unit underlies the high-grade metamorphic complex; it consists of paragneisses, micaschists, augen gneisses, Variscan granitoids and minor amphibolites, quartzites, Ca-silicate rocks and marbles (Colonna and Piccarreta 1976; Paglionico and Piccarreta 1976). It is exposed in the Sila and Serre Massifs (Fig. 1) and includes rocks equilibrated under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions in Variscan times and reworked by Alpine tectonics (Colonna and Piccarreta 1976; Langone 2008; Micheletti et al. 2007, 2011). The magmatic protoliths of augen gneisses were intruded in the metasediments of Castagna Unit.
The Mandatoriccio Complex is exposed in the Sila Massif (Fig. 1). It is tectonically overimposed on high-grade deep crustal rocks and consists of medium-grade metapelites, meta-arenites, meta-volcanites and metabasites with rare marbles and orthogneisses (Acquafredda et al. 1988, 1991; Langone 2008). Micaschists show a static porphyroblastic growth of biotite, garnet, andalusite, staurolite, muscovite and minor cordierite and fibrolite (Lorenzoni and Zanettin-Lorenzoni 1979; Borghi et al. 1992; Langone 2008). A clockwise P–T–t path with a metamorphic peak at about 590 °C and 0.35 GPa during Variscan post-orogenic extension dated 299 Ma has been defined (U–Th–Pb monazite ages; Langone et al. 2010).
High-grade metamorphic complex in Serre
The Variscan lower crust of the Serre includes, from the bottom (Fig. 2): (a) felsic granulites, metagabbros, metabasites, rare meta-peridotites, metagreywackes and metapelites, (b) migmatitic metapelites representing the wide portion of the Serre Massif (Schenk 1984; Fornelli et al. 2002), with interleaved metagreywackes, metabasites, rare marbles and augen gneisses. The augen gneisses preserve original intrusive features of their protoliths in the metasediments. The lower crustal rocks have been affected by pervasive partial melting (Maccarrone et al. 1983; Schenk 1984; Caggianelli et al. 1991; Fornelli et al. 2002) mostly during the Late Carboniferous–Permian exhumation (Fornelli et al. 2002). Thermobarometric calculations related to the Serre rock types (Acquafredda et al. 2006, 2008; Fornelli et al. 2011b) give: (1) T-peak of ~700 °C and of ~900 °C and P-peak of 0.9 and ~1.0–1.1 Gpa at the top and bottom of the section respectively, and (2) T-peak followed by quasi-isothermal decompression of about 0.5–0.6 Gpa at the top and by total decompression of about 0.3 Gpa at the bottom during Late Carboniferous—Permian times (Fornelli et al. 2011a). During the crustal thinning, at about 323 ± 5 Ma (Fornelli et al. 2011a) some quartz-monzodioritic dikes were emplaced in the middle part of the metapelites (Schenk 1984), subsequently, at about 300 Ma ago (Schenk 1980; Caggianelli et al. 2000), huge volumes of calc-alkaline granitoids were emplaced between the low-middle and high-grade metamorphic complexes (Fig. 2).
In the Aspromonte Massif (Southern Calabria), this Unit is sandwiched between the lower “Madonna di Polsi” Unit (Pezzino et al. 2008) not mapped in Fig. 1 and the super-imposed low-grade metamorphic complex, whereas, in the Peloritani massif, it is the highest tectonic Unit. The prevalent rock types are middle-grade biotite paragneisses and augen gneisses (derived from intruded granitoids) with minor amphibolites, micaschists and marbles (Fig. 1). The metamorphic rocks are extensively intruded by late-Variscan peraluminous granitoids (D’Amico et al. 1982; Rottura et al. 1990, 1993; Fiannacca et al. 2005, 2008). The Aspromonte–Peloritani Unit appears as the product of processes of crustal thickening during early- and middle-Variscan collisional stages, followed by crustal thinning, granitoid intrusion and unroofing during late-Variscan extensional stages (Festa et al. 2004; Caggianelli et al. 2007).
U–Pb monazite ages from paragneisses of the Aspromonte Massif dated ~300 Ma the metamorphic peak under T max of 620 °C and P max of ca. 0.25 Gpa (Graeßner et al. 2000; Appel et al. 2011). This metamorphic peak was nearly synchronous with the granitoid intrusions at 303–290 Ma (Appel et al. 2011 and references therein).
Zircon age determinations in samples Tur 3, Go 182, Tur17, Tur 76A, Grt3, MFS 3, Tur 49, Tur 32, Tur 46, garnet–biotite gneisses, GO 39, Go 95, LL61b2 and Tur 37b (Table 1) were performed using a 193 nm ArF excimer laser-ablation (LA) microprobe (GeoLas200QMicrolas) coupled to a magnetic sector ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer; Element 1 from Thermo Finnigan) at IGG-CNR (Pavia, Italy). The analytical procedures to acquire, collect and process data are reported in Fornelli et al. (2011b).
Zircon ages in samples GO 100, Tur 17, GO 6, GO 35 ADR 5 and ADR 18 (Table 1) were carried out using a Cameca SIMS-1270 ion microprobe (CRPG-CNRS of Nancy, France). Details on data acquisitions are reported in Micheletti et al. (2007).
Zircon ages in samples FIU-7, FIU-11, MV-15 and TC-9 (Table 1) were performed on the ANU SHRIMP II ion microprobe using procedures based on those described by Williams and Claesson (1987). The operative procedures are described in Williams et al. (2012) and Fiannacca et al. (2013).
As regards the samples Ta–Pu 1, Ta–Pu 2, Ta–Pu 3, Ta–Cs and Tao, the zircon ages were acquired using a Finnigan-MAT 262 multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometer calibrated against NBS 982+U500 at Geological and Mineralogical Museum of Oslo. Details are reported in Trombetta et al. (2004).
The analytical data of U–Pb zircon ages of considered samples are reported in Additional file 1 except for age data derived from Langone (2008), Laurita et al. (2015) and Trombetta et al. (2004) which should be referred.
The concordia test was performed for each analytical spot from 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U ratios using the function in the software package Isoplot/Ex3.00 (Ludwig 2003). The same software was used to calculate the Mean Concordia Age, the Mean Square of Weighted Deviates (MSWD) and the probability of concordance.
Trace element compositions on zircons were collected by LA-ICP-MS (CNR—Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse Unità di Pavia, Italy). Details of procedures are in Fornelli et al. (2011b).
The zircon domains from twenty-four samples here considered, show various spectra of ages having different geological significance (Table 1). The majority considered ages have a probability of concordance >75 %.
Variscan zircon domains occur and are decidedly abundant only in the granulite facies metasediments and metabasites of the lower crust of the Serre and in garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino massif, whereas they are absent in the augen gneisses and metasediments of the Aspromonte–Peloritani Unit and Mandatoriccio Complex (Table 1).
Ordovician–Silurian domains characterize the zircons from Calabria (Aspromonte and Castagna) augen gneisses, deep crustal rocks of the Serre, garnet–biotite gneiss of Pollino and metasediments of Mandatoriccio complex. However, in the Mandatoriccio complex and in garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino, the Ordovician–Silurian ages are related to detritic grains (Langone et al. 2010; Laurita et al. 2015), whereas in the Calabria augen gneisses and deep crustal rocks they have been interpreted as resetted or recrystallized domains (Fornelli et al. 2011a).
Lower Cambrian–pre-Cambrian zircon ages are present, in different proportions, in all considered rocks. It has to be noticed that these ages are abundant in the garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino massif while have been mostly erased in the higher-grade deep crust rocks of the Serre massif. In the following sections the significance of the age clusters in the examined rocks is discussed.
The first age cluster (619 ± 8 Ma) includes rounded or fractured cores appearing as detrital domains (Fig. 3a). Accordingly, the zircon domains averaging 619 ± 8 Ma and the older ones are to be considered as inherited from the source material (Fig. 3a). The three rims dated from 575 to 571 Ma (mean concordia age 573 Ma in Fig. 3b) with high U contents and low and quite similar Th/U ratios (≤0.1) seem to imply that Th and U contents at the time of the zircon growth were probably controlled by the same reactions and suggest compatibility with a metamorphic origin (Rubatto and Hermann 2007; Xia et al. 2009), as well as the cluster at 567 Ma with lower Th/U ratio (Fig. 3b). The cluster peaking at 543 Ma (n = 20) includes many euhedral crystals showing continuity between core and rim having high U contents (14 spot ranging from 659 to 241 ppm) and Th/U ratios mostly between 0.2 and 0.5 (Fig. 3c); one domain analysed for REEs produces a highly fractionated pattern and a distinct negative Eu anomaly (Fig. 3c). The characteristics of this population are common to magmatic zircons (Rubatto and Hermann 2007) or to recrystallised domains preserving memory of parental magmatic zircons (Xia et al. 2009). The moderate variability and the high values of Th/U seem to be consistent with precipitation from a hybrid magma precursor of the augen gneisses (Fornelli et al. 2007).
Metabasic rocks from the lower crust
many Variscan domains of zircon (Fig. 5b) from garnet-bearing rock types show evidence of the “garnet effect” in a closed system, such as flat HREE patterns (Fornelli et al. 2011a), in contrast with domains precipitated from a melt (Rubatto 2002). Thus the above domains formed or recrystallised in presence of garnet, which is metamorphic in origin (Fornelli et al. 2011a);
Eight ages in the range 505–593 Ma include four domains dated 593–564 Ma (in average 579 ± 15 Ma Fig. 5a–d) showing oscillatory zoning, high Th/U ratios (0.16–0.19) and fractionated REE patterns (Fig. 5d; Fornelli et al. 2011a), these features are compatible with a magmatic origin (Rubatto 2002).
On this basis, it seems that the mafic magmatism occurred in Neoproterozoic time (579 Ma), some tens of million years earlier than the felsic magmatic precursor of the augen gneisses at 543–545 Ma (Micheletti et al. 2008; Fornelli et al. 2011a, Fornelli et al. 2012; Williams et al. 2012). It is noteworthy that Neoproterozoic-Lower Cambrian felsic and mafic magmatism is recorded in many of the so-called “Cadomian blocks” present from the Iberia, Pyrenees, Western Alps to Turkey (e.g. Neubauer 2002; Stedra et al. 2002; Castiñeiras et al. 2008; Fernàndez-Suarez et al. 2013).
U–Pb data on zircon grains are available (Table 1) for migmatitic metapelites (sample GO 182), restitic metagreywacke (Tur 3) and felsic granulites (sample Tur 17) from the Serre, paragneisses from the Peloritani (sample FIU-7) and micaschists from the Mandatoriccio Complex in Sila (sample LL61b2) (Micheletti et al. 2008; Langone 2008; Fornelli et al. 2011a; Williams et al. 2012). Micheletti et al. (2008) report a few Neoproterozoic inherited zircon ages (206Pb/238U ages 585, 595, 654 and 1688 Ma) from the granulite facies metasediments of the Serre, and many ages in the range 325–270 Ma (Table 1; Fig. 6b). Three of the inherited ages are discordant evidencing Pb loss during the long geological history. In addition, an upper intercept at 1113 ± 100 Ma (Table 1) from discordant data was calculated for the migmatitic metapelite (Micheletti et al. 2008). The age data distribution in the high-grade metasediments from the Serre shows significant age peaks (Fig. 6b) interpreted as: (1) Variscan metamorphism (284 Ma), (2) memory of Ordovician–Silurian activity (489 Ma) and signatures of mafic magmatism (589 Ma) as discussed before (Figs. 5a, 6b). In garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino Massif similar age peak distribution can be observed apart from the significant age cluster at 1111–836 Ma (Fig. 6a).
Augen gneisses, metabasites and high-grade metasediments have been chemically analysed (Moresi et al. 1979; Fornelli et al. 2002, 2007; Muschitiello 2013; Fiannacca et al. 2013). The felsic protoliths of the augen gneisses were alkali-calcic hybrid magmas dominated by crustal components (Fornelli et al. 2007). The mafic-intermediate protoliths of metabasites were mantle-derived calc-alkaline magmas more or less crustal contaminated (Micheletti et al. 2007; Fornelli et al. 2007). The high-grade metapelites are deeply restitic after the extraction of about 40 % of “granitic melts” during the Variscan orogenesis (Fornelli et al. 2002).
From a geodynamic point of view the bimodal Neoproterozoic–Cambrian magmatism seems to be related to an active continental margin (Fornelli et al. 2007).
εNd and Nd tDM (Ma) values in different rock types of Castagna (CU), Sila (SU) and Aspromonte–Peloritani Units (APU)
Nd tDM (Ma)
Reference age (Ma)
(CU, n = 5)
Micheletti et al. (2007)
High grade metasediments and granulites (SU)
Caggianelli et al. (1991)
High grade metasediments and granulites (SU)
Medium-high grade paragneiss
(APU, n = 1)
Williams et al. (2012)
(APU, n = 3)
Fiannacca et al. (2013)
The augen gneisses from Peloritani have Nd model ages (1600–1520 Ma) and εNd values (from −3.21 to −4.45) both calculated at 565 and 545 Ma (Fiannacca et al. 2013) very similar to those calculated for the Calabria augen gneisses (Table 2).
Nd model ages in the granulite facies metasediments of the lower crust of the Serre Massif show a wider data range from 1350 to 2400 Ma (Schenk 1990; Caggianelli et al. 1991) and the εNd (550 Ma) values (−7.5 and −14.7) are lower than in the augen gneisses (Table 2). The paragneiss from Peloritani gives Nd model age of 1750 Ma and εNd (540 Ma) value of −6.6 (Williams et al. 2012).
Deposition age of crustal source of the augen gneisses
The Calabria augen gneisses relate to hybrid magmas (Fornelli et al. 2007) emplaced into metasediments around 543 ± 4 Ma (Fig. 4b; Micheletti et al. 2007, 2011). They contain Neoproterozoic to Archean inheritance represented by rounded and fractured zircon cores interpreted as detritic (Micheletti et al. 2007). A representative population (13 %) forms a statistically significant cluster peaking at 619 ± 8 Ma (Figs. 3a, 4b) of domains having variable Th/U ratios (0.1–0.7), which is followed by another significant cluster at 573 ± 3 Ma (Figs. 3b, 4b) calculated on rims having low and homogeneous Th/U ratios (≤0.1, Fig. 3b). The latter cluster is interpreted as indicative of the time of metamorphic zircon growth and imposes an absolute limit to the sedimentation that should be older than 573 ± 3 Ma. Considering that the older mean concordia age is 619 ± 8 Ma (Fig. 4b) than this age could approximate the sedimentation age of the protoliths.
The span of time between the presumed age of the sedimentation (619 ± 8 Ma) and the magmatic crystallization ages (in average 543 ± 4 Ma in Fig. 4b) of protoliths of augen gneisses might account for the evolution from sedimentation, metamorphism to partial melting stages during the Cadomian orogenesis.
This reconstruction does not agree with that hypothesized for the equivalent augen gneisses from Peloritani massif. Williams et al. (2012) and Fiannacca et al. (2013) envisage an almost synchronous process from sedimentation to partial melting (at 545 ± 7 Ma Fig. 4a and 546 ± 5 Ma in Fig. 7b) of the paragneisses hosting the augen gneisses because they measured similar zircon ages both in paragneisses and augen gneisses (Figs. 4a, 5, 6, 7b). In the proposed geological model for the Peloritani area, however, the evidences of restitic features of paragneisses compatible with extraction of abundant melt in Neoproterozoic–Cambrian times have not yet been documented. In addition, the εNd values calculated for Calabria augen gneisses (from −3.19 to −5.35 in Micheletti et al. 2007) are higher than εNd of the Peloritani paragneiss (−6.6 in Williams et al. 2012) precluding a direct link. We think that the similar age distribution in augen gneisses and paragneiss of Peloritani (Figs. 4b, 5, 6, 7b; Table 1) could be due to rejuvenation of zircon from paragneisses caused by intruding magmas (protoliths of augen gneisses), or by younger tectono-thermal events (Ordovician and Variscan) well documented in the felsic porphyroids and andesites from Peloritani (Table 1; e.g. Trombetta et al. 2004; Appel et al. 2011). The hypothesized metamorphism in Neoproterozoic–Cambrian times in Calabria at about 573 Ma (this paper) and in Peloritani paragneiss around 535 Ma (Williams et al. 2012; Fiannacca et al. 2013) give information about the evolution of Panafrican/Cadomian orogenesis.
Depositional ages of protoliths of the metasediments
The metasediments of the Serre, Castagna and Aspromonte–Peloritani terrains were intruded in Neoproterozoic times by acidic (543–545 Ma) and basic (579 ± 15 Ma) magmas (Micheletti et al. 2007, 2008). On this basis, the deposition of protoliths of metasediments must have been older than magma emplacements. This agrees with conclusion of Schenk (1990) indicating a sedimentation age from 1000 to 600 Ma for the high-grade metasediments of the Serre, on the basis of Sr isotopic evolution. In Variscan times these crustal domains were affected by medium- high-grade metamorphism. (Micheletti et al. 2008; Fornelli et al. 2011a). However, only the deep crustal metamorphites of the Serre and the garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino massif evidenced zircon domains formed in Variscan times (Table 1; Fig. 6). The granulite facies conditions as well as the pervasive fluid-present dehydration melting in the Serre (Fornelli et al. 2002) seem to account for generation of new zircon and/or modification of the older ones erasing nearly completely the pre-Cambrian ages (Fornelli et al. 2011a, Fornelli et al. 2012) which, however, are present in garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino massif (ages 1111–836 Ma Fig. 6a) where the Variscan metamorphism was not able to produce significant annealing/recrystallization processes in zircons (Laurita et al. 2015), probably as effect of lower temperatures of metamorphism. The here deduced deposition age of protoliths of metasediments (>600 Ma) is decidedly older than that suggested by Laurita et al. (2015) indicating 457 Ma as maximum depositional age for the sedimentary protoliths of garnet–biotite gneiss of the Pollino massif, which look like the high-grade metasediments of Calabria.
As concerns the Peloritani paragneisses and the Mandatoriccio micaschists representing medium grade metasediments, must be evidenced that the youngest detrital zircon age in the former was 535 ± 4 Ma (FIU-7 sample in Table 1) whereas in micaschists was in Ordovician–Silurian times 428 ± 10 Ma (LL61b2 sample in Table 1). These facts indicate the Lower Cambrian as minimum sedimentation age for Peloritani paragneisses (Williams et al. 2012) and the Ordovician–Silurian times as maximum sedimentation age for Mandatoriccio micaschists (Langone 2008).
According to our interpretation, the geological evolution of these terrains in pre-Paleozoic times was distinct: lower and intermediate Variscan crust portions (metasediments of Serre, Castagna and Aspromonte–Peloritani) record an older history with respect to Mandatoriccio complex, sliver of garnet–biotite gneiss from Pollino and very low-grade Variscan metasediments. In fact the very low-grade metasediments in southern Calabria and Sicily contain porphyroids and meta-andesites having Ordovician ages (Acquafredda et al. 1991) and Ordovician-Silurian zircon ages were revealed in low-grade metasediments of Serre (e.g. Martìn-Algarra 2014).
According to Stampfli et al. (2011) the pre-Variscan basements dispersed in the Mediterranean areas were mostly derived from Gondwana supercontinent. They consist of detrital materials derived from both East and West Gondwana cratonic sources since the Neoproterozoic time (von Raumer et al. 2013).
The provenance of materials forming the pre-variscan basements might be identified on the basis of (1) age of inheritance (Mallard and Rogers 1997), (2) nature and age of the magmatism, (3) absence or presence of ages falling in specific time spans and (4) isotopic characteristics (Mallard and Rogers 1997; Linnemann et al. 2008). However, it has to be pointed out that in the case under study the source materials experienced Neoproterozoic–Cambrian to Variscan tectonothermal events (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7). So inheritances could be affected by partial to complete resetting and the interpretation of individual ages could be misleading.
The lack of Ordovician–Silurian records in the Peloritani metasediments (Fig. 7b) can be due to the small number of analysed samples.
Neoproterozoic sediments derived from both West and East African cratonic sources, formed the protoliths of high-grade metasediments of the Serre, those of the Aspromonte–Peloritani Unit and probably even those of Castagna unit, all these metasediments were intruded by Neoproterozoic–Cambrian magmas so they are older.
Panafrican orogenesis and consequent assemblage of blocks (having East and West gondwana affinities) involved these terranes as evidenced by metamorphism between 573 ± 3 Ma (this paper) and 535 Ma (Williams et al. 2012). In Neoproterozoic–Cambrian age (543–545 and 579 Ma), bimodal magmatism affected these terrains (Fig. 9).
Uplift and extensional tectonic in the Ordovician times with rifting and opening of Ordovician basins (Fig. 9; Acquafredda et al. 1991). This tectonothermal activity is documented in zircons of high-grade metasediments of the Serre, metabasites, metagabbros and augen gneisses interpreted as resetting ages clustering around 489, 442 and 453 Ma in all considered samples (Figs. 4b, 5a, 6b) (Schenk 1984, Trombetta et al. 2004; Micheletti et al. 2007). Evidences of deposition in Ordovician–Silurian times are present in detritic zircons of Mandatoriccio micaschists (451 Ma in Fig. 7a; Langone 2008) and in garnet–biotite gneisses (457–475 Ma Fig. 6a; Laurita et al. 2015) as well as in very low-grade metasediments of both Calabria and Sicily revealed by zircon ages of included porphyroids and meta-andesite (Trombetta et al. 2004; Martín-Algarra et al. 2014).
Variscan orogenesis involved all described rocks recording zircon ages in the range 370–270 Ma only in high-grade metamorphites (Fig. 6) in which the enough high temperatures and intense partial melting (Fornelli et al. 2002) caused the regrowth or recrystallization of zircons.
The individual contributions of authors are: AF and GP wrote and arranged the manuscript reinterpreting the significances of the ages of considered samples. FM cared the data sets, prepared the figures, tables and references. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We are grateful to Antonio Langone (CNR—Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse Unità di Pavia, Italy) for assistance to LA-ICP-MS facilities. This research was financially supported by ‘‘Aldo Moro’’University of Bari (Italy).
In this paper there are not competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Acquafredda P, Lorenzoni S, Zanettin-Lorenzoni E (1988) La sequenza Paleozoica dell’Unità di Bocchigliero (Sila, Calabria). Rend Soc Geol It 11:5–22Google Scholar
- Acquafredda P, Barbieri M, Lorenzoni S, Zanettin-Lorenzoni E (1991) The age of volcanism and metamorphism of the Bocchigliero Paleozoic sequence (Sila—southern Italy). Rendiconti Accademia dei Lincei 9:145–156View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Acquafredda P, Fornelli A, Micheletti F, Piccarreta G (2003) The abundance of 51 elements and petrovolumetric models of the Calabria crust: Curinga-Stilo area (site 6). Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL, scritti e documenti 32:263–288Google Scholar
- Acquafredda P, Fornelli A, Paglionico A, Piccarreta G (2006) Petrological evidence for crustal thickening and extension in the Serre granulite terrane (Calabria, southern Italy). Geol Mag 143:1–19View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Acquafredda P, Fornelli A, Piccarreta G, Pascazio A (2008) Multistage dehydration–decompression in the metagabbros from the lower crustal rocks of the Serre (southern Calabria, Italy). Geol Mag 145:397–411View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amodio Morelli L, Bonardi G, Colonna V, Dietrich D, Giunta G, Ippolito F, Liguori V, Lorenzoni S, Paglionico A, Perrone V, Piccarreta G, Russo M, Scandone P, Zanettin Lorenzoni E, Zuppetta A (1976) L’arco Calabro-Peloritano nell’orogene Appenninico-Maghrebide. Memorie Società Geologica Italiana 17:1–60Google Scholar
- Appel P, Cirrincione R, Fiannacca P, Pezzino A (2011) Age constraints on Late Paleozoic evolution of continental crust from electron microprobe dating of monazite in the Peloritani Mountains (southern Italy): another example of resetting of monazite ages in high-grade rocks. Int J Earth Sci 100(1):107–123View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Atzori P, Vezzani L (1974) Lineamenti petrografico-strutturali della catena peloritana. Geol Romana 13:21–27Google Scholar
- Bonardi G, Cavazza W, Perrone V, Rossi S (2001) Calabria–Peloritani terrane and northern Ionian Sea. In: Vai GB, Martini IP (eds) Anatomy of an Orogen: the Apennines and Adjacent Mediterranean Basins. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 287–306View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Borghi A, Colonna V, Compagnoni R (1992) Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Bocchigliero and the Mandatoriccio Complex in the Sila nappe (Calabrian-Peloritan Arc, Southern Italy). IGCP n°276. Newsletters 5:321–334Google Scholar
- Bouillin JP, Baudelot S, Majestè-Menjoulas C (1984) Mise en évidence du Cambro-Ordovicien en Calabre centrale (Italie). Affinités paléogéographiques et conséquences structurales. C R Acad Sci Paris 298:89–92Google Scholar
- Caggianelli A, Del Moro A, Paglionico A, Piccarreta G, Pinarelli L, Rottura A (1991) Lower crustal genesis connected with chemical fractionation in the continental crust of Calabria (Southern Italy). Eur J Mineral 3:159–180View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caggianelli A, Prosser G, Rottura A (2000) Thermal history vs. fabric anisotropy in granitoids emplaced at different crustal levels: an example from Calabria, southern Italy. Terra Nova 12:109–116View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caggianelli A, Liotta D, Prosser G, Ranalli G (2007) Pressure- Temperature evolution of the late Hercynian Calabria continental crust: compatibility with post-collisional extensional tectonics. Terra Nova 19(6):502–514View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Castiñeiras P, Navidad M, Liesa M, Carreras J, Josep M, Casas JM (2008) U–Pb zircon ages (SHRIMP) for Cadomian and Early Ordovician magmatism in the Eastern Pyrenees: New insights into the pre-Variscan evolution of the northern Gondwana margin. Tectonophysics 461:228–239View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Colonna V, Piccarreta G (1976) Contributo alla conoscenza dell’Unità di Castagna in Sila Piccola: rapporti tra micascisti, paragneiss e gneiss occhiadini. Bollettino Società Geologica Italiana 95:39–48Google Scholar
- D’Amico C, Rottura A, Maccarrone E, Puglisi G (1982) Peraluminous granitic suite of Calabria–Peloritani arc (Southern Italy). Rendiconti Società Italiana Mineralogia e Petrologia 38:35–52Google Scholar
- Fernàndez-Suàrez J, Gutièrrez-Alonso G, Pastor-Galàn D, Hofmann M, Murphy JB, Linnemann U (2013) The Ediacaran-Early Cambrian detrital zircon record of NW Iberia: possible sources and paleogeographic constraints. Int J Earth Sci. doi:10.1007/s00531-013-0923-3 Google Scholar
- Festa V, Messina A, Paglionico A, Piccarreta G, Rottura A (2004) Pre-Triassic history recorded in the Calabria–Peloritani segment of the Alpine chain, southern Italy. An overview. Spec Iss 2: A showcase of the Italian research in metamorphic petrology. Periodico di Mineralogia 73:57–71Google Scholar
- Fiannacca P, Brotzu P, Cirrincione R, Mazzoleni P, Pezzino A (2005) Alkali metasomatism as a process for trondhjemite genesis: evidence from Aspromonte Unit, north-eastern Peloritani, Sicilyan. Mineral Petrol 84:19–45View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fiannacca P, Williams IS, Cirrincione R, Pezzino A (2008) Crustal Contributions to Late Hercynian Peraluminous Magmatism in the Southern Calabria Peloritani Orogen, Southern Italy: petrogenetic inferences and the Gondwana connection. J Petrol 49:1497–1514View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fiannacca P, Williams IS, Cirrincione R, Pezzino A (2013) The augen gneisses of the Peloritani Mountains (NE Sicily): Granitoid magma production during rapid evolution of the northern Gondwana margin at the end of the Precambrian. Gondwana Res 23:782–796View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fornelli A, Piccarreta G, Del Moro A, Acquafredda P (2002) Multi-stage melting in the lower crust of the Serre (Southern Italy). J Petrol 43(12):2191–2217View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fornelli A, Micheletti F, Piccarreta G (2007) The Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian felsic magmatism in Calabria (Italy): inferences as to the origin and geodynamic setting. Periodico di Mineralogia Special Issue 76:99–112Google Scholar
- Fornelli A, Langone A, Micheletti F, Piccarreta G (2011a) Time and duration of Variscan high-temperature metamorphic processes in the south European Variscides. Constraints from U–Pb chronology and trace-element chemistry of zircon. Mineral Petrol 103:101–122View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fornelli A, Pascazio A, Piccarreta G (2011b) Diachronic and different metamorphic evolution in the fossil Variscan lower crust of Calabria. Int J Earth Sci 101(5):1191–1207View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fornelli A, Langone A, Micheletti F, Piccarreta G (2012) Application of U–Pb dating and chemistry of zircon in the continental crust of Calabria (Southern Italy). In: Van Dijk G, Van den Berg V (eds) Zircon and olivine: characteristics, types and uses. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 1–36 (e-book ISBN: 978-1-62100-990-0) Google Scholar
- Fornelli A, Langone A, Micheletti F, Pascazio A, Piccarreta G (2014) The role of trace element partitioning between garnet, zircon and orthopyroxene on the interpretation of zircon U–Pb ages: an example from high-grade basement in Calabria (Southern Italy). Int J Earth Sci 103(2):487–507View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gasquet D, Levresse G, Cheilletz A, Azizi-Samir MR, Mouttaqi A (2005) Contribution to a geodynamic resconstruction of the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) during Pan-African times with the emphasis on inversion tectonics and metallogenic activity at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition. Precambr Res 140:157–182View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Graeßner T, Schenk V, Brocker M, Mezger K (2000) Geochronological constraints on the timing of granitoid magmatism, metamorphism and post-metamorphic cooling in the Hercynian crustal cross-section of Calabria. J Petrol 18:409–421Google Scholar
- Langone A (2008) Herynian low-pressure metamorphism: tectono-thermal evolution of the Mandatoriccio complex (Sila Massif, Calabria). PhD thesis. Università di Bologna, ItalyGoogle Scholar
- Langone A, Godard G, Prosser G, Caggianelli A, Rottura A, Tiepolo M (2010) P-T-t path of the Variscan low-pressure rocks from the Mandatoriccio complex (Sila Massif, Calabria, Italy): new insights for crustal evolution. J Metamorph Geol 28:137–162View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laurita S, Prosser G, Rizzo G, Langone A, Tiepolo M, Laurita A (2015) Geochronological study of zircons from continental crust rocks in the Frido Unit (southern Apennines). Int J Earth Sci Geol Rundsch 104(1):179–203View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lentini F, Vezzani L (1975) Le unità meso-cenozoiche della copertura sedimentaria del basamento cristallino peloritano (Sicilia nord-orientale). Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana 94(3):537–554Google Scholar
- Linnemann U, Pereira F, Jeffries TE, Drost K, Gerdes A (2008) The Cadomian Orogeny and the opening of the Rheic Ocean: The diacrony of geotectonic processes constrained by LA-ICP-MS U–Pb zircon dating (Ossa-Morena and Saxo-Thuringian Zones, Iberian and Bohemian Massifs). Tectonophysics 461(1–4):21–43View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lorenzoni S, Zanettin-Lorenzoni E (1979) Problemi di correlazione tettonica Sila-Aspromonte. Il significato dell’Unità ercinica di Mandatoriccio e dei graniti ad Al2SiO5. Boll Soc Geol It 98:227–238Google Scholar
- Ludwig KR (2003) User’s manual for a geochronological toolkit for microsoft excel. Special Publication vol 4. Berkeley Geochronology Center, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
- Maccarrone E, Paglionico A, Piccarreta G, Rottura A (1983) Granulite–amphibolite facies metasediments from the Serre (Calabria, Southern Italy): their protoliths and the processes controlling their chemistry. Lithos 16:95–111View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mallard LD, Rogers JJW (1997) Relationship of Avalonian and Cadomian terranes to Grenville and Pan-African events. J Geodyn 23:197–221View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martín-Algarra A, Somma R, Navas-Parejo P, Rodríguez-Cañero R, Sanchez-Navas A, Cambeses A, Scarrow JH, Perrone V (2014) The geodynamics of northern Gondwana: evidence from Paleozoic volcanic-sedimentary evolution of the Calabria–Peloritani terrane, southern Italy. Abstract book, Gondwana 15, Madrid, p 107Google Scholar
- Micheletti F, Barbey P, Fornelli A, Piccarreta G, Deloule E (2007) Latest Precambrian to Early Cambrian U–Pb zircon ages of augen gneisses from Calabria (Italy), with inference to the Alboran microplate in the evolution of the peri-Gondwana terranes. Int J Earth Sci 96(5):843–860View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Micheletti F, Fornelli A, Piccarreta G, Barbey P, Tiepolo M (2008) The basement of Calabria (southern Italy) within the context of the Southern European Variscides: LA-ICPMS and SIMS U–Pb zircon study. Lithos 104:1–11View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Micheletti F, Fornelli A, Piccarreta G, Tiepolo M (2011) U–Pb zircon data of Variscan meta-igneous acidic rocks from an Alpine shear zone in Calabria (southern Italy). Int J Earth Sci 100(1):139–155View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moresi M, Paglionico A, Piccarreta G, Rottura A (1979) The deep crust in Calabria (Polia Copanello Unit): a comparison with Ivrea-Verbano zone. Memorie della Società Geologica, Padova 33:233–242Google Scholar
- Muschitiello A (2013) Geochimica, geochimica isotopica ed età U–Pb su zirconi dei metagabbri e delle metabasiti nella crosta profonda ercinica delle Serre (Calabria). PhD Thesis, Bari University, Italy, pp 145Google Scholar
- Nance RD, Murphy JB, Strachan RA, Keppie JD, Gutiérrez-Alonso G, Fernández-Suárez J, Quesada C, Linnemann U, D’lemos R, Pisarevsky SA (2008) Neoproterozoic–early Palaeozoic tectonostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the peri-Gondwanan terranes: Amazonian v. West African connections. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 297:345–383View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neubauer F (2002) Evolution of late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic tectonic elements in Central and Southeast European Alpine mountain belts: review and synthesis. Tectonophysics 352:87–103View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paglionico A, Piccarreta G (1976) Le Unità del Fiume Pomo e di Castagna nelle Serre Settentrionali (Calabria). Boll Soc Geol It 95:27–37Google Scholar
- Pezzino A, Angı G, Fazio E, Fiannacca P, Lo Giudice A, Ortolano G, Punturo R, Cirrincione R, De Vuono E (2008) Alpine metamorphism in the Aspromonte Massif: implications for a new framework for the southern sector of the Calabria–Peloritani Orogen (Italy). Int Geol Rev 50:423–441View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rottura A, Bargossi GM, Caironi V, Del Moro A, Maccarrone E, Macera P, Paglionico A, Petrini R, Piccareta G, Poli G (1990) Petrogenesis of contrasting Hercynian granitoids from the Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy. Lithos 24:97–119View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rottura A, Caggianelli A, Campana R, Del Moro A (1993) Petrogenesis of Hercynian peraluminous granites from the Calabrian Arc, Italy. Eur J Mineral 5:737–754View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rubatto D (2002) Zircon trace element geochemistry: partitioning with garnet and the link between U–Pb ages and metamorphism. Chem Geol 184:123–138View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rubatto D, Hermann J (2007) Experimental zircon/melt and zircon/ garnet trace element partitioning and implications for the geochronology of crustal rocks. Chem Geol 241:62–87View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schenk V (1980) U–Pb and Rb-Sr radiometric dates and their correlation with metamorphic events in the granulite-facies basement of the Serre, Southern Calabria (Italy). Contrib Mineral Petrol 73:23–38View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schenk V (1984) Petrology of felsic granulites, metapelites, metabasics, ultramafics, and metacarbonates from Southern Calabria (Italy): prograde metamorphism, uplift and cooling of a former lower crust. J Petrol 25:255–298View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schenk V (1989) P-T-t path of the lower crust in the Hercynian fold belt of southern Calabria. In: Daly JS, Cliff RA, Yardley BWD (eds) Evolution of metamorphic belts, vol 43. Geological Society Special Publication, London, pp 337–342Google Scholar
- Schenk V (1990) The exposed crustal cross section of southern Calabria, Italy: structure and evolution of a segment of Hercynian crust. In: Salisbury MH, Fountain DM (eds) Exposed cross-sections of the continental crust. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Netherlands, pp 21–42View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schenk V, Todt W (1989) Age of formation of the southern Calabrian crust. Terra Abstracts 1:350Google Scholar
- Senesi G (1999) Petrologia della zona di bordo delle plutoniti delle Serre (Catanzaro, Calabria). PhD Thesis, pp 80, Bari University (Italy)Google Scholar
- Stampfli GM, von Raumer J, Wilhem C (2011) The distribution of Gondwana-derived terranes in the Early Paleozoic. In: Gutiérrez-Marco JC, Rábano I, García-Bellido D (eds) Ordovician of the World, vol 14. Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, pp 567–574Google Scholar
- Stedra V, Kachlik V, Kryza R (2002) Coronitic metagabbros of the Mariánské Lázně Complex and Teplá Crystalline Unit: inferences for the tectonometamorphic evolution of the western margin of the Teplá-Barrandian Unit, Bohemian Massif. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 201:217–236View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Trombetta A, Cirrincione R, Corfu F, Mazzoleni P, Pezzino A (2004) Mid-Ordovician U–Pb ages of porphyroids in the Peloritan Mountains (NE Sicily): paleogeographic implications for the evolution of the Alboran microplate. J Geol Soc Lond 161:1–13View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- von Raumer JF, Bussy F, Schaltegger U, Schulz B, Stampfli GM (2013) Pre-Mesozoic Alpine basements—their place in the European Paleozoic framework. GSA Bull 125(1–2):89–108View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- von Raumer JF, Stampfli GM, Arenas R, Sánchez Martínez S (2015) Ediacaran to Cambrian oceanic rocks of the Gondwana margin and their tectonic interpretation. Int J Earth Sci. doi:10.1007/s00531-015-1142-x Google Scholar
- Williams IS, Claesson S (1987) Isotopic evidence for the Precambrian provenance and Caledonian metamorphism of high grade paragneisses from the Seve Nappes, Scandinavian Caledonides: II. Ion microprobe zircon U–Th–Pb. Contrib Miner Petrol 97:205–217View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Williams IS, Fiannacca P, Cirrincione R, Pezzino A (2012) Peri-Gondwanian origin and early geodynamic history of NE Sicily: a zircon tale from the basement of the Peloritani Mountains. Gondwana Res 22:855–865View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia XQ, Zheng YF, Yuan H, Wu FY (2009) Contrasting Lu–Hf and U–Th–Pb isotope systematics between metamorphic growth and recrystallization of zircon from eclogite-facies metagranites in the Dabie orogen, China. Lithos 112(3–4):477–496View ArticleGoogle Scholar