 Research
 Open Access
Perturbational blowup solutions to the compressible Euler equations with damping
 Ka Luen Cheung^{1}Email authorView ORCID ID profile
 Received: 3 January 2016
 Accepted: 12 February 2016
 Published: 27 February 2016
Abstract
Background
The Ndimensional isentropic compressible Euler system with a damping term is one of the most fundamental equations in fluid dynamics. Since it does not have a general solution in a closed form for arbitrary wellposed initial value problems. Constructing exact solutions to the system is a useful way to obtain important information on the properties of its solutions.
Method
In this article, we construct two families of exact solutions for the onedimensional isentropic compressible Euler equations with damping by the perturbational method. The two families of exact solutions found include the cases \(\gamma >1\) and \(\gamma =1\), where \(\gamma\) is the adiabatic constant.
Results
With analysis of the key ordinary differential equation, we show that the classes of solutions include both blowup type and global existence type when the parameters are suitably chosen. Moreover, in the blowup cases, we show that the singularities are of essential type in the sense that they cannot be smoothed by redefining values at the odd points.
Conclusion
The two families of exact solutions obtained in this paper can be useful to study of related numerical methods and algorithms such as the finite difference method, the finite element method and the finite volume method that are applied by scientists to simulate the fluids for applications.
Keywords
 Blowup
 Global existence
 Euler equations
 Perturbational method
 Damping
 Singularity
Mathematics Subject Classfication
 35Q53
 35B44
 35C05
 35C06
Background and Main results
System (1) is one of the most fundamental equations in fluid dynamics. Many interesting fluid dynamic phenomena can be described by system (1) (Lions , 1998a; Lions , 1998b). The Euler equations \((\alpha =0)\) are also the special case of the noted Navier–Stokes equations, whose problem of whether there is a formation of singularity is still open and longstanding. Thus, the singularity formation in fluid mechanics has been attracting the attention of a number of researchers (Sideris 1985; Xin 1998; Suzuki 2013; Lei et al. 2013; Li and Wang 2006; Li et al. 2013).
Among others, we mention that in 2003, Sideris–Thomases–Wang (Sideris et al. 2003) obtained results for the three dimensional compressible Euler equations with a linear damping term with assumption \(\gamma >1\), that is, system (1) with \(N=3\) and \(\gamma >1\). They discovered that damping prevents the formation of singularities in small amplitude flows, but large solutions may still break down. They formulated the Euler system as a symmetric hyperbolic system, established the finite speed of propagation of the solution, and some energy estimates to obtain local existence as well as global existence of the solution. For larger solution, they showed that the solution will blow up in a finite time by establishing certain differential inequalities.
Theorem 1
Remark 2
The ordinary differential equation (O.D.E.) (6) will be analyzed in section 2 and it is wellknown by the theory of ordinary differential equations that the solutions of system (7) exist and is \(C^2\) as long as f and g, which are functions of \(\ddot{a}\), \(\dot{a}\) and a, are continuous.
Theorem 3
 (i) :

If \(\xi >0\) and \(a_1\ge 0\), then the solution (4) is a global solution.
 (ii) :

If \(\xi >0, a_1<0\) and \(a_0>a_1/\alpha\), then the solution (4) is a global solution.
 (iii) :

If \(\xi <0\), then the solution (4) blows up on a finite time.
 (iv) :

If \(\xi =0\) and \(a_1>0\), then the solution (4) blows up on the finite time \(T=\frac{1}{\alpha }\ln \frac{a_1}{a_1+a_0\alpha }>0\).
 (v) :

If \(\xi =0\), and \(a_1<0\) and \(a_0<a_1/\alpha\), then the solution (4) blows up on the finite time \(T=\frac{1}{\alpha }\ln \frac{a_1}{a_1+a_0\alpha }>0\).
Moreover, we show that the singularity formations in the cases iii), iv) and v) above are of essential type in the sense that the singularities cannot be smoothed by redefining values at the odd points. This is an improvement of the corresponding results in Yuen (2011).
For \(\gamma =1\), we obtain the following theorem.
Theorem 4
Theorem 5
 (i) :

If \(\xi >0\) and \(a_1\ge 0\), then the solution (8) is a global solution.
 (ii) :

If \(\xi >0, a_1<0\) and \(a_0>a_1/\alpha\), then the solution (8) is a global solution.
 (iii) :

If \(\xi <0\), then the solution (8) blows up on a finite time.
 (iv) :

If \(\xi =0\) and \(a_1>0\), then the solution (8) blows up on the finite time \(T=\frac{1}{\alpha }\ln \frac{a_1}{a_1+a_0\alpha }>0\).
 (v) :

If \(\xi =0\), and \(a_1<0\) and \(a_0<a_1/\alpha\), then the solution (8) blows up on the finite time \(T=\frac{1}{\alpha }\ln \frac{a_1}{a_1+a_0\alpha }>0\).
Analysis of an O.D.E.
Lemma 6
Proof
Lemma 7

Case 1. If \(\xi >0 \quad \text {and} \quad a_1\ge 0, \quad \text{then} \quad T^*=+\infty\) .

Case 2. If \(\xi >0, a_1<0 \quad \text {and} \quad a_0>a_1/\alpha , \quad \text {then} \quad T^*=+\infty\) .

Case 3. If \(\xi <0, \quad \text {then} \quad T^*<+\infty\).
Proof
Remark 8
The case for \(\xi =0\) will be analyzed in the proof of Theorem 3.
Proofs of the Theorems
Proof of Theorem 1
We divide the proof into steps.
Step 1. In the first step, we show a lemma.
Lemma 9
Proof of Lemma 9
Next, we prove Theorem 3 as follows.
Proof of Theorem 3
For \(\xi >0\), case i) and case ii) of Theorem 3 follow from Case 1. and Case 2. of Lemma 7.
Proof of Theorems 4 and 5
Note that (10) is a special case of (12) and the arguments in the proof of Theorem 3 hold for \(\gamma =1\). Thus, the results for Theorem 5 follows. \(\square\)
Conclusion
The complicated Euler equations with a damping term (1) do not have a general solution in a closed form for arbitrary wellposed initial value problems. Thus, numerical methods and algorithms such as the finite difference method, the finite element method and the finite volume method are applied by scientists to simulate the fluids for applications in real world. Thus, our exact solutions in this article provide concrete examples for researchers to test their numerical methods and algorithms.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
This research paper is partially supported by the Grant: MIT/SRG02/1516 from the Department of Mathematics and Information Technology of the Hong Kong Institute of Education.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
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