# Neimark-Sacker bifurcation of a two-dimensional discrete-time predator-prey model

- A. Q. Khan
^{1, 2}Email author

**Received: **11 August 2015

**Accepted: **13 December 2015

**Published: **18 February 2016

## Abstract

In this paper, we study the dynamics and bifurcation of a two-dimensional discrete-time predator-prey model in the closed first quadrant \(\mathbb {R}_+^2\). The existence and local stability of the unique positive equilibrium of the model are analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the model can undergo a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in a small neighborhood of the unique positive equilibrium and an invariant circle will appear. Some numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our theocratical results and numerically it is shown that the unique positive equilibrium of the system is globally asymptotically stable.

## Keywords

## Mathematics Subject Classification

## Background

As is well known, in the theory of population dynamical models there are two kinds of mathematical models: the continuous-time models described by differential equations, and the discrete time models described by difference equations. In recent years more and more attention is being paid to discrete time population models. The reasons are as follows: First, the discrete time models are more appropriate than the continuous time models when populations have non-overlapping generations, or the number of population is small. Second, we can get more accurate numerical simulations results from discrete time models. Moreover, the numerical simulations of continuous-time models are obtained by discretizing the models. At last, the discrete-time models have rich dynamical behaviors as compared to continuous time models. Predator-prey models have already received much attention during last few years. For example, the stability, permanence and the existence of periodic solutions of the predator-prey models are studied in Fazly (2007), Hu and Zhang (2008), Liu (2010), Xia et al. (2007) and Yang and Li (2009). Study of discrete dynamical behavior of systems is usually focus on boundedness and persistence, existence and uniqueness of equilibria, periodicity, and there local and global stability (see for example, Khan and Qureshi 2014a, b, 2015a, b, c; Kalabuŝić et al. 2009; Khan 2014; Ibrahim and El-Moneam 2015; Kalabuŝić et al. 2011; Elsayed and Ibrahim 2015a, b; Garić-Demirović et al. 2009; Qureshi and Khan 2015; Kalabuŝić et al. 2011; Ibrahim 2014; Ibrahim and Touafek 2014) but there are many articles that discuss the dynamical behavior of discrete-time models for exploring the possibility of bifurcation and chaos phenomena (Hu et al. 2011; Sen et al. 2012; Chen and Changming 2008; Gakkhar and Singh 2012; Jing and Yang 2006; Zhang et al. 2010; Smith 1968).

The organization of the paper is as follows: In Sect. “Existence of equilibria and local stability”, we discuss the existence and local stability of equilibria for system (1) in \(\mathbb {R}_+^2\). This also include the specific parametric condition for the existence of Neimark-Sacker bifurcation of the system (1). In Sect. “Neimark-Sacker bifurcation”, we study the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation by choosing \(\alpha \) as a bifurcation parameter. In Sect. “Numerical simulations”, numerical simulations are presented to verify theocratical discussion. Finally a brief conclusion is given in Sect. “Conclusion”.

## Existence of equilibria and local stability

In this section, we will study the existence and stability of equilibria of system (1) in the close first quadrant \(\mathbb {R}^2_{+}\). So, we can summarized the results about the existence of equilibria of system (1) as follows:

###
**Lemma 2.1**

- (i)
*System*(1)*has a unique equilibrium**O(0, 0) if*\(\alpha <\frac{1}{1-\beta }\)*and*\(\beta <1\); - (ii)
*System*(1)*has two equilibria**O(0, 0)**and*\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)*if*\(\alpha >\frac{1}{1-\beta }\)*and*\(\beta <1\).*More precisely, system*(1)*has a unique positive equilibrium*\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)*if*\(\alpha >\frac{1}{1-\beta }\)*and*\(\beta <1\).

*x*,

*y*) is

*J*of linearized system of (1) about the unique positive equilibrium \(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \) is given by

###
**Lemma 2.2**

- (i)
*For the equilibrium point**O*(0, 0),*following topological classification holds:*- (i.1)
*O(0, 0) is a sink if*\(\alpha <1\); - (i.2)
*O*(*0, 0) is a saddle if*\(\alpha >1\); - (i.3)
*O(0, 0) is non-hyperbolic if*\(\alpha =1\).

- (i.1)

###
**Lemma 2.3**

*For the unique positive equilibrium*\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)

*of system*(1),

*following topological classification holds:*

- (i)\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)
*is a sink if one of the following parametric conditions holds:*- (i.1)
\(\Delta \ge 0\)

*and*\(0<\alpha <\frac{1}{1-\beta }\); - (i.2)
\(\Delta <0\)

*and*\(0<\alpha <\frac{1}{1-2\beta }\) ;

- (i.1)
- (ii)\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)
*is a source if one of the following parametric conditions holds:*- (ii.1)
\(\Delta \ge 0\)

*and*\(\alpha >\frac{1}{1-\beta }\); - (ii.2)
\(\Delta <0\)

*and*\(\alpha >\frac{1}{1-2\beta }\);

- (ii.1)
- (iii)\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)
*is non-hyperbolic if one of the following parametric conditions holds:*- (iii.1)
\(\Delta \ge 0\)

*and*\(\alpha =\frac{1}{1-\beta }\); - (iii.2)
\(\Delta <0\)

*and*\(\alpha =\frac{1}{1-2\beta }\);

- (iii.1)

From Lemmas 2.2 and 2.3, we summarize the local dynamics of system (1) as follows:

###
**Theorem 2.4**

- (i)
*If*\(\alpha <\frac{1}{1-\beta }\)*and*\(\beta <1\),*then system*(1)*has a unique equilibrium**O*(*0, 0*),*which is locally asymptotically**stable;* - (ii)
*If*\(\alpha >\frac{1}{1-\beta }\)*and*\(\beta <1\),*then system*(1)*has two equilibria**O*(*0, 0*)*and*\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \),*in which*\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \) i*s locally asymptotically stable*.

In the following section, we will study the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation about the unique positive equilibrium \(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \) by using bifurcation theory (Guckenheimer and Holmes 1983; Kuznetson 2004).

## Neimark-Sacker bifurcation

*T*is invertible. Using translation

###
**Theorem 3.1**

*If the condition *(10)* holds*, *i*.*e*., \(\Omega \not =0\)
* and the parameter*
\(\alpha \)
* alters in the limited region of the point (0, 0), then the system* (4)* passes through a Neimark- Sacker bifurcation at the*
* unique positive equilibrium*
\(A\left( \beta _1,\alpha _1(1-\beta _1)-1\right) \).* Moreover, if *
\(\Omega <0\) (*respectively*
\(\Omega >0\)),* then an attracting (respectively repelling) invariant closed curve bifurcates from the equilibrium*
\(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \)
* for*
\(\alpha >0\) (*respectively*
\(\alpha <0\)).

## Numerical simulations

*iii*.2) of Lemma 2.3, the value of bifurcation parameter is \(\alpha =1.85185\). In theoretical point of view, the unique positive equilibrium is stable if \(\alpha <1.85185\), loss its stability at \(\alpha =1.85185\) and an attracting invariant close curves appear from the positive equilibrium when \(\alpha >1.85185\). From subfigures a and b of Fig. 1 it is clear that if \(\alpha =1.48<1.85185\), then unique positive equilibrium is locally stable and corresponding to Fig. 1a, b one can easily seen from Fig. 2a that it is an attractor. So, Fig. 1 shows the local stability of system (1) whereas Fig. 2 shows that the unique positive equilibrium of system (1) is globally asymptotically stable. Figure 3 shows that for different choices of parameters when \(\alpha >1.85185\), then unique positive equilibrium is unstable and meanwhile an attracting invariant closed curve bifurcates from the positive equilibrium, as in Fig. 3a–i.

## Conclusion

This work is related to stability and bifurcation analysis of a discrete predator-pray model. We proved that system (1) have two equilibria namely (0, 0) and \(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \). Moreover, simple algebra shows that if \(\alpha >\frac{1}{1-\beta },\ \beta <1\) then system (1) has unique positive equilibrium \(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \). The method of linearization is used to prove the local asymptotic stability of equilibria. Linear stability analysis shows that *O*(0, 0) is a sink if \(\alpha <1\), saddle if \(\alpha >1\), and non-hyperbolic if \(\alpha =1\). For the unique positive equilibrium \(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \), we have different topological types for possible parameters and proved that it is locally asymptotically stable and under the condition \(\alpha =\frac{1}{1-2\beta }\) the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix are a pair of complex conjugate with modulus one. This means that there exist a Neimark-Saker bifurcation when the parameters vary in the neighborhood of \(H_A\). Then we present the Neimark-Saker bifurcation for the unique positive equilibrium point \(A\left( \beta ,\alpha (1-\beta )-1\right) \) of system (1) by choosing \(\alpha \) as a bifurcation parameter. We analysis the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation both by theoretical point of view and by numerical simulations. These numerical examples are experimental verifications of theoretical discussions.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The author thanks the main editor and referee for their valuable comments and suggestions leading to improvement of this paper. This work was supported by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.

### Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

**Open Access**This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Chen Y, Changming S (2008) Stability and hopf bifurcation analysis in a prey-predator system with stage-structure for prey and time delay. Chaos Solitons Fractals 38(4):1104–1114View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elsayed EM, Ibrahim TF (2015a) Solutions and periodicity of a rational recursive sequences of order five. Bull Malays Math Sci Soc 38(1):95–112Google Scholar
- Elsayed EM, Ibrahim TF (2015b) Periodicity and solutions for some systems of nonlinear rational difference equations. Hacettepe J Math Stat (To Appear) Google Scholar
- Fazly M, Hesaaraki M (2007) Periodic solutions for discrete time predator-prey system with monotone functional responses. C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 345:199–202Google Scholar
- Gakkhar S, Singh A (2012) Complex dynamics in a prey predator system with multiple delays. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 17(2):914–929View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garić-Demirović M, Kulenović MRS, Nurkanović M (2009) Global behavior of four competitive rational systems of difference equations in the plane. Discrete Dyn Nat Soc. doi:10.1155/2009/153058
**(Article ID 153058)** - Guckenheimer J, Holmes P (1983) Nonlinear oscillations, dynamical systems and bifurcation of vector fields. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Hu D, Zhang Z (2008) Four positive periodic solutions of a discrete time delayed predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functional response and harvesting. Comp Math Appl 56:3015–3022View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu Z, Teng Z, Zhang L (2011) Stability and bifurcation analysis of a discrete predator-prey model with nonmonotonic functional response. Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl 12(4):2356–2377Google Scholar
- Ibrahim TF, Touafek N (2014) Max-type system of difference equations with positive two-periodic sequences. Math Method Appl Sci 37(16):2562–2569View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ibrahim TF, El-Moneam MA (2015) Global stability of a higher-order difference equation. Iranian J Sci Technol (in Press) Google Scholar
- Ibrahim TF (2014) Solving a class of three-order max-type difference equations. Dyn Cont Discrete Impuls Syst Ser A Math Anal 21:333–342Google Scholar
- Jing Z, Yang J (2006) Bifurcation and chaos in discrete-time predator-prey system. Chaos Solitons Fractals 27(1):259–277View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kalabusić S, Kulenović MRS, Pilav E (2011) Dynamics of a two-dimensional system of rational difference equations of Leslie-Gower type. Adv Differ Equ. doi:10.1186/1687-1847-2011-29
- Kalabusić S, Kulenović MRS, Pilav E (2011) Multiple attractors for a competitive system of rational difference equations in the plane. Abstr Appl Anal. doi:10.1155/2011/295308
- Kalabusić S, Kulenović MRS, Pilav E (2009) Global dynamics of a competitive system of rational difference equations in the plane. Adv Differ Equ (Article ID 132802) Google Scholar
- Khan AQ, Qureshi MN (2015c) Stability analysis of a discrete biological model. Int J Biomath 9(2):1–19Google Scholar
- Khan AQ (2014) Global dynamics of two systems of exponential difference equations by Lyapunov function. Adv Diff Equ 1:297Google Scholar
- Khan AQ, Qureshi MN (2014b) Global dynamics of a competitive system of rational difference equations. Math Method Appl Sci. doi:10.1002/mma.3392
- Khan AQ, Qureshi MN (2015a) Dynamics of a modified Nicholson-Bailey host-parasitoid model. Adv Differ Equ 1:15Google Scholar
- Khan AQ, Qureshi MN (2014a) Behavior of an exponential system of difference equations. Disc Dyn Nat Soc. doi:10.1155/2014/607281
**(Article ID 607281)** - Khan AQ, Qureshi MN (2015b) Qualitative behavior of two systems of higher-order difference equations. Math Meth Appl Sci. doi:10.1002/mma.3752
- Kuznetson YA (2004) Elements of applied bifurcation theorey, 3rd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Liu X (2010) A note on the existence of periodic solution in discrete predator-prey models. Appl Math Model 34:2477–2483Google Scholar
- Qureshi MN, Khan AQ (2015) Local stability of an open-access anchovy fishery model. Comp Eco Soft 5(1):48–62Google Scholar
- Sen M, Banerjee M, Morozov A (2012) Bifurcation analysis of a ratio-dependent prey-predator model with the Allee effect. Ecol Complex 11:12–27View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smith J (1968) Mathematical ideas in biology. Cambridge Press, CambridgeView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia Y, Cao J, Lin M (2007) Discrete-time analogues of predator-prey models with monotonic or nonmonotonic functional responses. Nonlinear Anal RWA 8:1079–1095Google Scholar
- Yang W, Li X (2009) Permanence for a delayed discrete ratio-dependent predator-prey model with monotonic functional responses. Nonlinear Anal RWA 10:1068–1072Google Scholar
- Zhang CH, Yan XP, Cui GH (2010) Hopf bifurcations in a predator-prey system with a discrete delay and a distributed delay. Nonlinear Anal Real World Appl 11(5): 4141–4153Google Scholar