- Research
- Open Access
The q-G method
- Aline C. Soterroni^{1}Email author,
- Roberto L. Galski^{2},
- Marluce C. Scarabello^{1} and
- Fernando M. Ramos^{1}
Received: 1 June 2015
Accepted: 13 October 2015
Published: 28 October 2015
Abstract
In this work, the q-Gradient (q-G) method, a q-version of the Steepest Descent method, is presented. The main idea behind the q-G method is the use of the negative of the q-gradient vector of the objective function as the search direction. The q-gradient vector, or simply the q-gradient, is a generalization of the classical gradient vector based on the concept of Jackson’s derivative from the q-calculus. Its use provides the algorithm an effective mechanism for escaping from local minima. The q-G method reduces to the Steepest Descent method when the parameter q tends to 1. The algorithm has three free parameters and it is implemented so that the search process gradually shifts from global exploration in the beginning to local exploitation in the end. We evaluated the q-G method on 34 test functions, and compared its performance with 34 optimization algorithms, including derivative-free algorithms and the Steepest Descent method. Our results show that the q-G method is competitive and has a great potential for solving multimodal optimization problems.
Keywords
Mathematics Subject Classification
Background
The history of q-calculus dates back to the beginning of the previous century when, based on the pioneering works of Euler and Heine, the English reverend Frank Hilton Jackson developed q-calculus in a systematic way (Chaundy 1962; Ernst 2000; Kac and Cheung 2002). His work gave rise to generalizations of special numbers, series, functions and, more importantly, to the concepts of the q-derivative (Jackson 1908), or Jackson’s derivative, and the q-integral (Jackson 1910). Recently, based on Jackson’s derivative, a q-version of the classical Steepest Descent method, called the q-Gradient (q-G) method, has been proposed for solving unconstrained continuous global optimization problems (Soterroni et al. 2010, 2012). The main idea behind this new method is the use of the negative of the q-gradient of the objective function as the search direction. The q-gradient is calculated based on q-derivatives, or Jackson’s derivatives, and requires a dilation parameter q that controls the balance between global and local search.
These simple examples show that the use of the q-gradient, based on Jackson’s derivative, offers a new mechanism for escaping from local minima. The algorithm for the q-G method is complemented with strategies to generate the parameter q and to compute the step length in a way that the search process gradually shifts from global in the beginning to almost local search in the end. As here proposed, the q-G algorithm has only two free parameters to be adjusted: the initial standard deviation (\(\sigma ^0\)) and the reduction factor (\(\beta\)). Although a bad choice may lead to some deterioration in its performance, the q-G method has shown to be sufficiently robust for still being capable of reaching the global minimum.
We evaluated q-G’s performance of against 34 optimization methods and on 34 test problems. First, we considered ten 2-D optimization problems, eight unimodal and two multimodal, as defined in (Luksan and Vlcek 2000), and compared the q-G method with 22 derivative-free algorithms described in (Rios and Sahinidis 2013). Second, we evaluated our approach on twelve 10-D and twelve 30-D test problems, ten unimodal and fourteen multimodal. These test problems have been proposed as a benchmark for the CEC′2005 Special Session on Real-Parameter Optimization of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation 2005 (Suganthan et al. 2005). For this second set of problems, we compared the q-G with 11 Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) participants of the competition and with the steepest descent (SD) method.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The " q-gradient vector" section introduces the q-gradient vector. "The q-G method" section presents an algorithm for the q-G method. "Computational experiments" section shows the numerical results, and "Conclusions" section presents our main conclusions.
The q-gradient vector
The q-G method
Gradient-based optimization methods can be characterized by the different strategies used to move through the search space. The Steepest Descent method, for example, sets \(\mathbf {d}^{k} = -\nabla f(\mathbf {x}^{k})\) as the search direction and the step length \(\alpha ^{k}\) is usually determined by a line-search technique that minimizes the objective function along the direction \(\mathbf {d}^{k}\). In the q-G method, the search direction is the negative of the q-gradient of the objective function \(- \nabla _{q} f(\mathbf {x})\).
Starting from \(\sigma ^0\), the standard deviation of the pdf is decreased by the following “cooling” schedule, \(\sigma ^{k+1} = \beta \cdot \sigma ^{k}\), where \(0<\beta <1\) is the reduction factor (see Fig. 4d). As \(\sigma ^{k}\) approaches zero, the values of \(q_i^k\) tend to 1, the algorithm reduces to the Steepest Descent method, and the search process becomes essentially local. In this sense, the role of the standard deviation here is reminiscent of the one played by the temperature in a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm, that is, to make the algorithm sweeps from a global random sampling in the beginning to a local deterministic search in the end. As in a SA algorithm, the performance of the minimization algorithm depends crucially on the choice of parameters \(\sigma ^0\) and \(\beta\). A too rapid decrease of \(\sigma ^{k}\), for example, may cause the algorithm to be trapped in a local minimum.
The algorithm of the q-G method is completed with a strategy for calculating the step length \(\alpha ^k\) based on standard parabolic interpolation. Given the current point of the search \(\mathbf {x}^k\) and the parameter \(\mathbf {q}^k\), we calculate \(\gamma = \Vert \mathbf {q}^k \mathbf {x}^k - \mathbf {x}^k\Vert\) to define the triplet of points \((\mathbf {a},\mathbf {b},\mathbf {c})=(\mathbf {x}^k - \gamma \mathbf {d}^k,\mathbf {x}^k, \mathbf {x}^k + \gamma \mathbf {d}^k )\), where \(\mathbf {d}^k\) is the search direction in the iteration k. The step length corresponds to the distance between the current value and the minimum value of the parabola passing through \(\mathbf {a}\), \(\mathbf {b}\) and \(\mathbf {c}\). Other strategies for computing the step length are, naturally, possible. Nevertheless, the use of a line-search technique is not recommended since the search directions of the q-G method are not always descent directions. Descent directions are required for the success of this kind of one-dimensional minimization (Nocedal and Wright 2006).
Summarizing, the algorithm of the q-G method for unconstrained continuous global optimization problems is described as follows.
Algorithm for the q-G method
- 1.
Set \(k= 0\)
- 2.
Set \(\mathbf {x}_{best} = \mathbf {x}^k\)
- 3.While the stopping criteria are not reached, do:
- a.
Generate \(\mathbf {q}^k\mathbf {x}^k\) by a Gaussian distribution with \(\sigma ^k\) and \(\mu ^k=\mathbf {x}^k\)
- b.
Calculate the q-gradient vector \(\nabla _q f(\mathbf {x}^k)\)
- c.
Set \(\mathbf {d}^{k} = - \nabla _q f(\mathbf {x}^k) / \Vert \nabla _q f(\mathbf {x}^k) \Vert\)
- d.
Calculate \(\gamma = \Vert \mathbf {q}^k \mathbf {x}^k - \mathbf {x}^k\Vert\)
- e.
Calculate the triplet \((\mathbf {a},\mathbf {b},\mathbf {c})=(\mathbf {x}^k - \gamma \mathbf {d}^k,\mathbf {x}^k, \mathbf {x}^k + \gamma \mathbf {d}^k )\)
- f.
Compute \(\alpha ^k\) by parabolic interpotation, and \(\mathbf {x}^{k+1}= \mathbf {x}^{k} + \alpha ^{k} \mathbf {d}^{k}\)
- g.
If \(f(\mathbf {x}^{k+1}) < f(\mathbf {x}_{best})\) set \(\mathbf {x}_{best} = \mathbf {x}^{k+1}\)
- h.
Set \(\sigma ^{k+1} = \beta \cdot \sigma ^{k}\)
- i.
Set \(k = k + 1\)
- a.
- 4.
Return \(\mathbf {x}_{best}\) and \(f(\mathbf {x}_{best})\).
The q-G method stops when the appropriate stopping criterion is attained. In real-world applications (i.e., in problems for which the global minimum is not known), it can be the maximum number of function evaluations, or the value of the local gradient \(||\nabla f(\mathbf {x}^k)|| < \epsilon\) (\(\epsilon >0\)), since the q-G method converges to the Steepest Descent method. The algorithm returns the \(\mathbf {x}_{best}\) as the minimum value of the objective function f obtained during the iterative procedure, i.e., \(f(\mathbf {x}_{best}) \le f(\mathbf {x}^k)\), \(\forall k\).
Computational experiments
The q-G method was tested on two set of problems followed by a systematic comparison with derivative-free algorithms. First, we applied our approach on ten 2-D test problems defined in (Luksan and Vlcek 2000), eight unimodal and two multimodal, and compared it with 22 derivative-free algorithms described in (Rios and Sahinidis 2013). Second, the q-G method was evaluated on twelve 10-D and twelve 30-D test problems, ten unimodal and fourteen multimodal, and it was compared with 11 Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) participants of the CEC′2005 Special Section on Real-Parameter Optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, and the Steepest Descent method. The q-G method and the Steepest Descent method were performed on a iMac 2.7GHz with Intel Core i5 processor and 8GB RAM running Intel Fortran Composer XE for Mac OS* X.
The q-G method has two free parameters, the initial standard deviation \(\sigma ^0\) and the reduction factor \(\beta\). The optimal setting for these parameters is typically problem dependent. The value of \(\sigma ^0\) should not be too small so that the algorithm does not behave like its classical version too early, and not too large so that the iterates do not escape the search space frequently. Extensive numerical tests have shown that \(\sigma ^0 = \kappa L\), where \(\kappa = \sqrt{D/2}\), D is the dimension of the problem and L is the largest distance within the search space given by \(L=\sqrt{\sum _{i=1}^{n} (\mathbf {x}_{{max}_{i}} - \mathbf {x}_{{min}_{i}})}\), provides a simple heuristic for setting this parameter. For example, we set \(\sigma ^0 =L\) for all the 2-D problems. This strategy may not provide the best parameter setting for every test function, but is good enough for a wide range of problems.
The value of \(\beta\), which controls the speed with which the algorithm shifts from global to local search, also depends on D. As a rule of thumb, \(\log (1-\beta ) \sim -\kappa\) gives good estimates for \(\beta\). For example, for D ranging from 1 to 8, \(0.9 \le \beta \le 0.99\) is a good choice; for \(8 \le D \le 18\), we choose \(0.99 \le \beta \le 0.999\); for \(18 \le D \le 32\), \(0.999 \le \beta \le 0.9999\); and so on. Naturally, the choice of \(\beta\) should be balanced with the maximum number of function evaluations of one is willing or limited to perform.
First set of problems
A subset of problems prosed at (Luksan and Vlcek 2000) for dimension 2-D
Test problems | \([\mathbf {x}_{min},\mathbf {x}_{max}]^D\) | \(f(\mathbf {x}^{*})\) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
Problem 3.1 | Rosenbrock | Unimodal | \([-10,000,10,000]^2\) | 0 |
Problem 3.2 | Crescent | Multimodal | \([-5000,10,000]^2\) | 0 |
Problem 3.3 | CB2 | Unimodal | \([-50,50]^2\) | 1.9522245 |
Problem 3.4 | CB3 | Unimodal | \([-50,50]^2\) | 2 |
Problem 3.5 | DEM | Unimodal | \([-10,000,10,000]^2\) | −3 |
Problem 3.6 | QL | Unimodal | \([-10,000,10,000]^2\) | 7.20 |
Problem 3.7 | LQ | Unimodal | \([-10000,10000]^2\) | −1.4142136 |
Problem 3.8 | Mifflin 1 | Unimodal | \([-10,000,10,000]^2\) | −1 |
Problem 3.9 | Mifflin 2 | Unimodal | \([-10000,10000]^2\) | −1 |
Problem 3.10 | Wolf | Multimodal | \([-10,000,10,000]^2\) | −8 |
The q-G method solved 100 % of the multimodal problems (see Fig. 5), 79 % of the unimodal problems (see Fig. 6) and, in total, our approach solved 83 % of the problems arriving in a 7th position among the 23 methods. The comparison was performed under the same initial conditions and stopping criterion, and the q-G method used the same set of free parameters for all problems, namely \(\sigma ^0 = L\) and \(\beta = 0.95\).
Second set of problems
A subset of the test problems proposed at CEC′2005 for dimensions 10-D and 30-D
Test problems | \([\mathbf {x}_{min},\mathbf {x}_{max}]^D\) | \(f(\mathbf {x}^{*})\) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
Unimodal | ||||
\(f_1\) | Shifted sphere function | \([-100,100]^D\) | −450 | |
\(f_2\) | Shifted Schwefel’s problem 1.2 | \([-100,100]^D\) | −450 | |
\(f_3\) | Shifted rotated high conditioned elliptic function | \([-100,100]^D\) | −450 | |
\(f_4\) | Shifted Schwefel’s problem 1.2 with noise in fitness | \([-100,100]^D\) | −450 | |
\(f_5\) | Schwefel’s problem 2.6 with global optimum on bounds | \([-100,100]^D\) | −310 | |
Multimodal | ||||
\(f_6\) | Shifted Rosenbrock’s function | \([-100,100]^D\) | 390 | |
\(f_7\) | Shifted rotated Griewank’s function without bounds | – | −180 | |
\(f_9\) | Shifted Rastrigin’s function | \([-5,5]^D\) | −330 | |
\(f_{10}\) | Shifted rotated Rastrigin’s function | \([-5,5]^D\) | −330 | |
\(f_{11}\) | Shifted rotated Weierstrass function | \([-0.5,0.5]^D\) | 90 | |
\(f_{12}\) | Schwefel’s problem 2.13 | \([-\pi ,\pi ]^D\) | −460 | |
\(f_{15}\) | Hybrid composition function | \([-5,5]^D\) | 120 |
The test problems proposed at CEC′2005 are based on classical benchmark functions such as Sphere, Rosenbrock’s, Rastrigin’s, Ackley’s and Griewank’s function. They contain difficulties such as huge number of local minima, shifted global optimum, rotated domain, noise, global optimum outside the initialization range or within a very narrow basin, and a combination of different function properties (Suganthan et al. 2005). The function \(f_{15}\), for example, is a composition of Rastrigin’s, Weierstrass, Griewank’s, Ackley’s and Sphere functions. The selected subset of the CEC′2005 test problems comprises those for which at least one of the thirteen algorithms (eleven EAs, the q-G and SD methods) was capable to achieve a fixed accuracy or a target function value defined in (Suganthan et al. 2005).
To ensure a fair comparison, we applied on the q-G and SD methods the same evaluation criteria defined in (Suganthan et al. 2005) and used by the EAs. For each function and dimension, the algorithms performed 25 independent runs from different starting points generated with a uniform random distribution within the search space^{1} (see column \([\mathbf {x}_{min},\mathbf {x}_{max}]^D\) of Table 2). The stopping criteria are either the termination error value equal to \(10^{-8}\) or less {i.e., \([f(\mathbf {x}_{best})-f(\mathbf {x}^{*})] < 10^{-8}\), where \(\mathbf {x}^{*}\) is the global optimum} or the maximum number of function evaluations (\(Max\_FEs\)) equal to \(10{,}000 \times D\). More details of the functions and evaluation criteria can be found in (Suganthan et al. 2005). The resolution of these twelve 10-D and twelve 30-D problems, each one solved for 25 independent runs, results in a total number of 600 optimization instances per algorithm. Here we are also using fixed free parameters \(\sigma ^0 = \sqrt{5}L\) with \(\beta = 0.995\) for all 10-D problems, and \(\sigma ^0 =\sqrt{15}L\) with \(\beta = 0.9995\) for all 30-D problems. The SD method uses golden section technique to generate the step length. For the multimodal functions, whenever the SD method terminates before reaching the termination error and the number of function evaluations is less than \(Max\_FEs\), it is restarted from a randomly generated point inside the search space.
Success rate (SR) and success performance (SP) of the q-G and the SD methods for each function and dimension
Functions | 10-D | 30-D | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
q-G | SD | q-G | SD | |||||
SR | SP | SR | SP | SR | SP | SR | SP | |
\(f_1\) | 1.00 | 2.83e+3 | 1.00 | 4.68e+1 | 1.00 | 1.82e+3 | 1.00 | 8.80e+1 |
\(f_2\) | 0.96 | 4.15e+4 | 1.00 | 3.28e+4 | 0 | – | 0.04 | 7.39e+6 |
\(f_3\) | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – |
\(f_4\) | 0.96 | 3.99e+4 | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – |
\(f_5\) | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – |
\(f_6\) | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – |
\(f_7\) | 1.00 | 1.22e+4 | 0 | – | 1.00 | 9.28e+4 | 1.00 | 2.28e+4 |
\(f_9\) | 1.00 | 2.08e+4 | 0 | – | 0.88 | 1.69e+4 | 0 | – |
\(f_{10}\) | 1.00 | 2.69e+4 | 0 | – | 0.96 | 2.57e+4 | 0 | – |
\(f_{11}\) | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – |
\(f_{12}\) | 0 | – | 0.08 | 3.55e+5 | 0 | – | 0 | – |
\(f_{15}\) | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – | 0 | – |
- 1.
Highest value of the average success rate (column “Average SR %”).
- 2.
Number of solved functions in each group (column “SF”). A function is considered solved by an algorithm if at least one of the runs is a successful run or if the SR is different from 0.
- 3.
Lowest value of the average success performance (column “Average SP”).
Rank of the algorithms for the unimodal problems and dimensions 10-D and 30-D
10-D | 30-D | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Algorithms | Average | SF | Average | Algorithms | Average | SF | Average |
SR (%) | SP | SR (%) | SP | ||||
G-CMA-ES | 100 | 5 | 3.85e+03 | G-CMA-ES | 88 | 5 | 3.70e+04 |
EDA | 98 | 5 | 1.46e+04 | L-CMA-ES | 80 | 4 | 3.32e+04 |
DE | 96 | 5 | 5.68e+04 | EDA | 80 | 4 | 1.81e+05 |
L-CMA-ES | 86 | 5 | 4.20e+04 | DMS-L-PSO | 57 | 3 | 1.57e+05 |
BLX-GL50 | 80 | 4 | 3.22e+04 | SPC-PNX | 53 | 3 | 2.36e+05 |
CoEVO | 80 | 4 | 3.53e+04 | L-SaDE | 50 | 3 | 2.36e+05 |
SPC-PNX | 80 | 4 | 2.72e+04 | K-PCX | 40 | 2 | 7.53e+03 |
DMS-L-PSO | 76 | 4 | 3.75e+04 | BLX-GL50 | 40 | 2 | 1.09e+05 |
L-SaDE | 72 | 4 | 2.96e+04 | SD | 21 | 2 | 3.70e+06 |
BLX-MA | 59 | 3 | 4.10e+04 | q-G | 20 | 1 | 4.51e+04 |
q-G | 59 | 3 | 2.80e+04 | BLX-MA | 20 | 1 | 3.17e+04 |
K-PCX | 57 | 3 | 2.01e+04 | DE | 20 | 1 | 1.39e+05 |
SD | 40 | 2 | 1.64e+04 | CoEVO | 9 | 2 | 1.11e+06 |
Rank of the algorithms for the multimodal problems and dimensions 10-D and 30-D
10-D | 30-D | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Algorithms | Average | SF | Average | Algorithms | Average | SF | Average |
SR (%) | SP | SR (%) | SP | ||||
G-CMA-ES | 69 | 6 | 7.53e+04 | G-CMA-ES | 41 | 6 | 1.41e+06 |
L-SaDE | 59 | 5 | 6.06e+04 | q-G | 41 | 3 | 4.51e+04 |
DMS-L-PSO | 54 | 5 | 5.18e+04 | K-PCX | 35 | 5 | 2.07e+05 |
K-PCX | 47 | 4 | 2.99e+04 | DMS-L-PSO | 30 | 3 | 6.33e+05 |
q-G | 43 | 3 | 5.67e+03 | L-CMA-ES | 29 | 2 | 3.56e+04 |
DE | 39 | 6 | 6.91e+05 | BLX-GL50 | 29 | 2 | 1.38e+05 |
BLX-GL50 | 29 | 4 | 9.42e+04 | L-SaDE | 23 | 2 | 1.17e+05 |
L-CMA-ES | 35 | 3 | 3.64e+04 | SD | 14 | 1 | 2.28e+04 |
EDA | 21 | 4 | 1.68e+05 | EDA | 14 | 1 | 1.31e+05 |
BLX-MA | 13 | 2 | 1.87e+05 | DE | 13 | 1 | 2.00e+05 |
SPC-PNX | 1 | 2 | 1.45e+05 | SPC-PNX | 10 | 2 | 2.79e+05 |
SD | 1 | 1 | 3.55e+05 | CoEVO | 6 | 1 | 5.69e+05 |
CoEVO | 0 | 0 | – | BLX-MA | 5 | 1 | 6.58e+05 |
For the unimodal problems, the q-G method does not perform very well arriving in eleventh and tenth positions for dimensions 10-D and 30-D, respectively. The average success rates for the unimodal problems are 59 % for 10-D and 20 % for 30-D. Note that the increase of the dimension affected the performance of all algorithms, in terms of either SR or the number of solved functions. Overall, the performance of the q-G method is not very different from its classical version, the SD method, which arrives in the thirteenth and ninth positions, for dimensions 10-D and 30-D, respectively.
This picture changes for the multimodal problems, where the q-G method performed well, arriving in fifth and second positions for 10-D and 30-D, respectively. The average success rates of the q-G method are 43 and 41 % for 10-D and 30-D, respectively. As expected, the SD method has a poor performance over the multimodal problems arriving in twelfth and eighth positions for dimensions 10-D and 30-D, respectively. Again, the increase of the dimension affected the performance of all algorithms.
Conclusions
In this paper we presented the q-G method, a generalization of the Steepest Descent method based on the use of the q-gradient vector to compute the search direction. This strategy provides the algorithm an effective mechanism for escaping from local minima. As implemented here, the search process performed by the q-G method gradually shifts from global search in the beginning to local search in the end. Our computational results have shown that the q-G method is competitive and promising. For the multimodal functions in the two set of problems, it performed well compared to the other derivative-free algorithms, some considered to be among the state-of-the-art in the evolutionary computation and numerical optimization communities.
Although our preliminary results show that the method is effective, further research is necessary. Currently, a novel version of the q-G method, which is able to guarantee the convergence of the algorithm to the global minimum in a probabilistic sense, is under development. This version is based on the generalized adaptive random search (GARS) framework for deterministic functions (Regis 2010). In addition, gains in the performance of the q-G method are expected with the implementation of several improvements, such as inclusion of side, linear and nonlinear restrictions, development of better step selection strategies and others.
For the Shifted rotated Griewank’s function (\(f_7\)) the domain used to generate the initial points is \([0,600]^D\), where D is the dimension of the problem.
Declarations
Authors’ contributions
ACS, RLG, MCS and FMR participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. They also conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Brazil.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
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