Decentralized automatic generation control of interconnected power systems incorporating asynchronous tie-lines
© Ibraheem et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 5 October 2014
Accepted: 4 December 2014
Published: 16 December 2014
This Paper presents the design of decentralized automatic generation controller for an interconnected power system using PID, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The designed controllers are tested on identical two-area interconnected power systems consisting of thermal power plants. The area interconnections between two areas are considered as (i) AC tie-line only (ii) Asynchronous tie-line. The dynamic response analysis is carried out for 1% load perturbation. The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with the conventional PID controller. The investigations of the system dynamic responses reveal that PSO has the better dynamic response result as compared with PID and GA controller for both type of area interconnection.
Modern Power system consists of large number of generating units interconnected by transmission lines. The interconnection of the power systems enhance the stability and become a viable tool to provide the almost uninterruptible power to load canters from generating stations. The two power system areas may be connected through synchronous/asynchronous tie-lines. To provide a good quality of power, the operation of power system must be maintained at the nominal frequency and voltage profile. And it is achieved by controlling of real and reactive powers. A modern power system is divided into a number of control areas and each area is responsible for its own load and power interchanges. If the input-output power balance is not maintained, a change in frequency will occur which it highly undesirable. In modern interconnected power system, automatic generation control (AGC) is used to maintain the system frequencies and tie-line power flows at the specified nominal values.
The automatic generations control of interconnected power systems has become more significant as size and complexity of the system is going on increasing to meet out power demand. A large number of control techniques have been proposed by the researchers for the design of AGC regulators. In the early era, the AGC strategies were proposed base on centralized control strategy (Quazza1966; Elgerd & Fosha1970; Aldeen & Trinh1994; Fosha & Elgerd1970). The limitation of AGC centralized control strategy is that it requires the exchange of information from control areas spread over distantly connected geographical areas along with their increased computational and storage complexities. The decentralized automatic generation control strategies deals the limitations of centralized power system very effectively (Kawabata and Kido1982; Park & Lee1984; Calovic1984; Aldeen and Marsh1990,1991; Aldeen1991; Yang et al.1998,2002). The researchers (Kumar et al.1985) proposed the systematic distributed control design methods and achieved almost identical results as obtained with the centralized strategies. The design of decentralized load frequency controllers based on structured singular values and multiple control-structure constraints are discussed in (Kumar et al.1987; Shayeghi et al.2007). The decentralized AGC regulator design based on the structured singular value is designed for local area robust analysis, and an eigen value method is derived for tie-line robustness analysis (Tan & Zhou2012). (Tan2011) proposed a method to analyze the stability of multi-area power system by accounting the inherent structure of the multi-area power system. (Sudha and Vijaya Santhi2011) proposed a Type 2 Fuzzy controller for decentralized two area interconnected power system with consideration of generation rate constraint.
2. Power system models
In this paper two power system models are considered for design of decentralized AGC regulators using PID, GA and PSO. The area interconnection in one power system model is only AC tie line and in the second model Parallel AC/DC link is considered
3. State space model
Where A, B, Γ are system, control and disturbance matrices and x, u and d are system control and disturbance vectors.
From the above equations, System, control and disturbance matrices can be obtained as given below:
where K1(s) is the local LFC controller for area-1.
4. A control scheme for an interconnected power system
4.1 Tuning of AGC parameter
Gains of PID controller
4.2 Genetic algorithm
The genetic algorithm is a nature inspired optimization technique (Goldberg1989). There are some sequential steps to be followed in developing the GA for automatic generation control. The Chromosomes Structure is built up with the initial set of random population in the form chromosomes which consists of genes as binary bits. These binary bits are then decoded to give proper string for optimization. The new population are regenerated which is to be converged at global optimum by the specified selection, crossover and mutation operators. Elitism is applied to save and use previously found best partner in subsequent fittest generation of population.
The processes stop as soon as convergence criterion is satisfied.
4.3 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
where i = 1, 2, …, n is the index of particles, w is the inertia weight, rand1,ik and rand2,ik are random numbers in the interval [0 1], c1 and c2 are learning factors, and t represents the iterations.
5. Simulation results and discussion
The AGC regulators are designed using PID, GA and PSO for two-area interconnected decentralized power system. The area interconnections are considered as AC tie-line and parallel AC/DC tie-lines. Investigations of results are presented that inferred the superiority PSO controller in comparison to PID and GA. The comparisons have been made between the power system model-I and power system model-II consisting of AC tie-line and parallel AC/DC tie-line. The positive effect of DC link in parallel to AC tie-line is also clearly visible in the time response plots of all states with the designed regulators.
i subscript referring to area i (i = 1,2)
Δf i frequency deviation of Area (Hz)
ACE i area control error,
ΔP ti incremental change in power generation,
ΔPgi incremental change in governor valve position,
ΔP tie tie-line power deviation,
T gi governor time constant for the ith area subsystem (s),
T ti turbine time constant for the ith area subsystem (s),
T pi plant model time constant for the ith area subsystem (s),
T ij synchronizing coefficient between the ith and jth area subsystem (p.u. MW),
K pi plant gain for the ith area subsystem,
R i speed regulation due to governor action for the ith area subsystem,
χ i (t) states of the ith area subsystem,
u i (t) control input for the ith area subsystem.
ZN Ziegler and Nichols control method
ACE Area Control Error
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