BN-PAGE analysis of torsinA complexes. Full-length human torsinA (WT) or the dystonia-linked torsinAΔE protein (ΔE) was expressed in HEK293 (A) and CHO (B) cells. Production of the torsinA variants was confirmed by SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with anti-torsinA antibodies (lower panels) using untransfected cells as a control (C). The cell lysates were separated on BN-PAGE followed by immunoblotting (upper panels). For BN-PAGE, the migration positions of the native-electrophoresis standards are indicated. The migration position of β-amylase (200 kDa) is indicated with an arrow. Protein migration in BN-PAGE can reflect other biophysical properties, besides the molecular weight, so the molecular weight determination is only approximate. The figure shows a representative result from two independent experiments.