One-stage laparoscopic surgery for inspissated bile syndrome: case report and review of surgical techniques
© Berger et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 13 September 2013
Accepted: 6 November 2013
Published: 4 December 2013
Inspissated bile syndrome in a 6 week old boy was unresponsive to oral ursodesoxycholic acid. Intraoperative cholangiography revealed complete obstruction of the common bile duct. Therefore, the gallbladder fundus was pulled out through a laparoscopy port site and sutured to the fascia. A catheter was positioned into the infundibulum for irrigation with ursodesoxycholic acid. At day 8 complete resolution of the plug and free passage of contrast medium into the duodenum was documented radiologically. The catheter was removed, skin closed spontaneously without a second surgery for closure of the gall bladder.
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia associated with extrahepatic bile duct dilatation may be caused by inspissated bile. In the absence of metabolic disease or bile duct malformations this inspissation is often preceeded by sludge in the gall bladder e.g. secondary to prolonged parenteral nutrition, sepsis, or hemolysis (Gubernick et al.1990). The resulting cholestasis may be transient with resolution of the concrements either spontaneously or after medical treatment with ursodesoxycholic acid. In some cases however, medical treatment is unsuccessful and inspissated bile syndrome develops which may require surgical intervention.
We herein report a case of inspissated bile syndrome treated surgically by laparoscopic catheter insertion into the gall bladder for antegrade flushing of the bile ducts.
Review of surgical options
The probability for the need for a surgical intervention is high when bile ducts become dilated to more than 3 mm (Fitzpatrick et al.2010). Bile duct dilatation, persisting jaundice and increasing laboratomy parameters such as alcalic phosphatase, ASAT, ALAT, and y-GT are regarded as indication for intervention. Besides the possibility for irrigation of the bile ducts, laparoscopy and intraoperative cholangiography are suitable to rule out biliary tract malformations as a reason for cholestasis when combined with a liver biopsy. Several procedures are described for clearance of obstructed bile ducts: percutaneous management under sedation with transhepatic puncture of the gall bladder and introduction of a wire and a balloon dilator has recently been reported (Duman et al.2011). The majority of authors describe laparoscopic aided cholecystostomy under anesthesia with placement of a catheter into the gall bladder for repeated irrigation with saline (Gao et al.2011) or ursodesoxycholic acid (Gunnarsdottir et al.2008; Lieber et al.2012). Identification of the correct position of the port for pulling out the gall bladder as described by Gao et al. (2011) is crucial. We performed daily lavage of the gall bladder with boluses of 5 ml saline and then installed 3 ml of ursodesoxycholic acid (50 mg/ml or 50 mg/kg body weight). Sonographic controls were withheld until the stool became coloured and hyperbilirubinemia resolved. Prior to pulling the catheter, a contrast radiological study is recommended to record that complete clearance of the bile ducts has been achieved. It is not clear however, whether a second procedure is necessary after removal of the catheter. The need for gall bladder closure and detachment from the abdominal wall may depend on the type of catheter employed. With the use of a balloon catheter, closure of the gall bladder has been reported after its removal to maintain gall bladder function and to avoid adhesions (Lieber et al.2012). We used a 4 F (16 G) central venous catheter (Certofix Mono S 415, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) which appeared to us ideal in length (15 cm), rigidity and its features for fixation to the skin. The smaller diameter of this catheter allowed for rapid spontaneous closure of the cholecystostomy opening after catheter removal. In the present case the cholecystostomy site was dry after 24 hours and only a minimal scar was visible at follow up after 3 months. There is no long term follow up available for both techniques however.
A one stage minimally invasive procedure was efficient and safe for clearance of a completely obstructed common bile duct and gall bladder in inspissated bile syndrome in an infant.
- Duman L, Büyükyavuz BI, Akcam M, Koroglu M, Tepeli H: Percutaneous management of bile-plug syndrome: a case report. J Pediatr Surg 2011, 46: E37-E41.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fitzpatrick E, Jardine R, Farrant P, Karani J, Davenport M, Mieli-Vergani G, Baker A: Predictive value of bile duct dimensions measured by ultrasound in neonates presenting with cholestasis. JPGN 2010, 51: 55-60.Google Scholar
- Gao ZG, Shao M, Xiong QX, Tou JT, Liu WG: Laparoscopic cholecystostomy and bile duct lavage for treatment of inspissated bile syndrome: a single-center experience. World J Pediatr 2011, 7: 269-271. 10.1007/s12519-011-0321-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gubernick JA, Rosenberg HK, Ilaslan H, Kessler A: US approach to jaundice in infants and children. Radiographics 1990, 20: 173-195.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gunnarsdottir A, Holmqvist P, Arnbjörnsson E, Kullendorf CM: Laparoscopic aided cholecystostomy as a treatment of inspissated bile syndrome. J Pediatr Surg 2008, 43: E33-E35.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lieber J, Piersma FE, Sturm E, Schäfer JF, Fuchs J, Szavay PO: Surgical treatment of inspissated bile syndrome using a 2-stage pure laparoscopic approach: a case report. J Pediatr Surg 2012, 47: E47-E50. 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.043View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.