- Open Access
Impact of environmental factors on the population dynamics, density and foraging activities of Odontotermes lokanandi and Microtermes obesi in Islamabad
SpringerPlus volume 2, Article number: 349 (2013)
Affect of different environmental factors i.e., temperature, relative humidity and precipitation on population dynamics, density and foraging activities of Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes lokanandi Chatarjee and Thakur (Isoptera: Termitidae) were studied from March 2010 to July 2012 in Islamabad. A total of 1200 poplar wooden stakes was used for monitoring the termite activities in Islamabad. The results showed that 65 out of 1200 poplar wooden stakes were found infested by both species i.e. M. obesi and O. lokanandi. Both species were interacting with each other in the experimental field and O. lokanandi was found significantly dominant. Mean yield per trap ranged from 0.83 ± 0.20 gm to 1.12 ± 0.28 gm and 0.35 ± 0.09 gm to 0.82 ± 0.19 gm for M. obesi and O. lokanandi in the field, respectively. M. obesi and O. lokanandi in 1.0 gm sample ranged from 539.83 ± 2.21 to 567.83 ± 9.41 and 407.67 ± 4.75 to 424.5 ± 1.15 individuals, respectively. Population of workers ranged from 93.53 ± 1.73 to 97.68 ± 0.40 and 91.69 ± 1.42 to 98.41 ± 0.50 percent for M. obesi and O. lokanandi, respectively.
Positive and significant correlation was found among atmospheric temperature, precipitation and both subterranean termite species i.e., M. obesi and O. lokanandi; however, the correlation was found non significant and negative between relative humidity and foraging activities of both termite species.
Moreover, correlation was found positive and significant between atmospheric temperature and percent workers of M. obesi; while negative and non-significant between atmospheric temperature and percent workers of O. lokanandi. Negative and significant correlation was noted between relative humidity and percent workers of M. obesi; whereas, positive and significant correlation was recorded between relative humidity and percent workers of O. lokanandi. Positive and non-significant correlation was recorded between precipitation and percent workers of M. obesi; while positive and significant correlation was observed between precipitation and percent workers of O. lokanand.
Termites or white ants are eusocial roaches (Inward et al. 2007), belonging to the order Blattodea. They are polymorphic living in colonies that comprise of reproductive, soldiers and workers. The queen is very much bigger than the king, is capable of laying eggs at the rate of 36,000 a day for as long as 50 years. Worker termites perform taking care of the brood, maintaining and repairing the nest, and foraging for food (Krishna 1969), moreover, they feed other caste i.e., soldiers and functional reproductive (Grassé Grasse 1939; Noirot and Noirot-Timothee 1969). Termites are a large group of organisms of which there are greater than 2600 species (Kambhampati and Eggleton 2000). Subterranean termites live in large colonies and can range from about 0.2- 5 million individuals (Grace et al 1989) and the colony grows slowly for many years (Bignell and Eggleton 1998).
Subterranean termites cause significant building and urban structural damages throughout the world, especially in the tropical and sub-tropical regions (1969; Edwards and Mill 1986; Pearce 1997), they damage forestry and wide range of agriculture crops including cash crops such as maize, wheat, groundnuts, and rice; and pastures (Dawes-Gromadzki 2005).
Different trapping techniques have been described to aggregate and collect subterranean termites. Su and Scheffrahn (1986) described an underground collection unit consisting of a wooden box within a short length of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe, with a plastic cap, that is buried below the soil surface at urban environment to monitor subterranean termites. Esenther (1980) buried corrugated fiberboard to collect R. flavipes, and La Fage et al.(1983) reported a technique of extracting subterranean termites from infested wood by placing a short length of PVC containing a roll of moistened corrugated fiberboard on top of the wood. Many scientists have used excavated nest to collect data, although this procedure excludes termites in peripheral foraging galleries (Holdaway et al. 1935; Gay and Greaves 1940; Rohrmann 1977; Ohiaqu 1979; Collins 1981; Howard et al. 1982). Terminologists used ground stakes to monitor termite foraging activities (Esenther and Beal 1974; 1978; Su et al. 1982; Jones 1989).
Atmospheric temperature and rainfall have been found correlated with seasonal foraging activities of termites (Abensperg-Traun 1991; Haagsma and Rust 1995; Rust et al. 1996; Dibog et al. 1998; Haverty et al. 1999; Evans and Gleason 2001; Daves-Gromadski and Spain 2003; Mesenger and Su 2005; Moura et al. 2006). Foraging activities of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggat) was found correlated with both soil and air temperature (Evans and Gleason 2001). Studies have shown that seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of subterranean termites may influence the efficacy of baiting programs due to decline of activities during winter (Ripa et al. 2007; Haverty et al 2010).
The objective of the present study was to determine whether changes in temperature, relative humidity and precipitation affect the population dynamics, density and foraging activities of O. lokanadi and M. obesi in Islamabad.
Materials and methods
Ecological study of subterranean termites was conducted in Islamabad; the Federal Capital of Pakistan. Geographically, it is situated at northern latitudes 33° 42’ 0” and eastern longitudes 72° 10’ 0” lying at an altitudes of 457 to 610 m above sea level. Its elevation is 507 meters (1,663 feet). Islamabad lies in the sub-tropical, sub-humid continental climatic zone. Total area of the Federal Capital of Pakistan is 906 square Km and is bounded on the west by Attock, Hazara in the north, Rawalpindi in the south and poonch of Azad Kashmir in the east. The climate is characterized by hot summers and cold winters, with some frost events in January. The mean maximum temperature in the hottest month of June is 40°C; while the mean minimum temperature of January is 3°C. The mean annual rain fall is about 1000 mm, 70 percent of which falls during the summer monsoon season (July, August and September) and remaining 30 percent falls in winter (December, January and February). The soil is slightly alkaline, non-saline, loamy in texture, low in organic matter and major nutrients with exception of available K (Nizami et al. 2004). The plant community of Islamabad consists of Justicia adhatoda L., Mangifera indica L., Tamarix aphylla (L.) H. Karst., Acacia modesta Wall., Dodonaea viscose (L.) Jacq., Zizyphus nummularia (Burm. F.) Wight & Arn., Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Apluda mutica L., Quercus incana Bartr., Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz., Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Venten., Fiscus palmata Forsk. and Dicliptera roxburghiana Nees (1987).
, followed by the procedure used by Su and Scheffrahn 1988. A total of 1200 monitoring stakes was driven into the soil of infested areas of Islamabad and these stakes were checked fortnightly. Out of the 1200 stakes placed in the ground, typically only 65 were infested by two termite species i.e., O. lokanandi and M. obesi and these infested stakes were replaced with “NIFA-TERMAPs” (Figure 1).
Population dynamics of subterranean termites
Stakes (2.5 × 4 × 28 cm) (thickness width length) of poplar wood were buried in termite infested areas of Islamabad, and were checked fortnightly. When any stake was found infested by termite, a “ NIFA-TERMAP” which, consist of a PVC pipe (8 mm thickness × 15 cm dia × 20 cm length) buried in the soil having a bundle of 5 poplar wooden slices (1.3 × 8 × 15 cm) wrapped in blotting paper covered with earthen lid (Salihah et al., 1993) was installed on that point. The wooden stakes as well as “NIFA-TERMAPs” were checked fortnightly and the infested traps by termites were replaced with a new one. The infested traps were brought to the laboratory to separate the termites from the soil and debris, collected termites were weighed. The number of soldiers and workers were also determined in one gram termite sample. The total numbers of termites were obtained by multiplying the number counted in one gram with the total weight. From each trap sample of 5–10 workers and soldiers were preserved in 80% alcohol for identification of the species. Identification of termites from each and every trap were done on each episode by using the key of Chaudhry et al. (1972).
Ecology of foraging termites
Foraging ecology was studied by counting the number of termites captured by termite trap named “ NIFA-TERMAP” (Salihah et al. 1993) under the prevailing temperature, relative humidity and rain fall of the experimental site. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured with the help of Hygrotherm and the data of rainfall was collected from Meteorological Department of Islamabad. The effect of relative humidity, temperature and rainfall were also studied on the caste composition of foraging group of termites.
Statistical computation was performed by using Co-Stat and MStat-C. Means were separated by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.
Results and discussion
Population dynamics of subterranean termite
Tables 1 and 2 shows that mean ± SE yield of Microtermes obesi and Odontotermes lokanandi varied among each trap, i.e., it ranged from 0.83 ± 0.20 gm to 1.12 ± 0.28 gm and 0.35 ± 0.09 gm to 0.82 ± 0.19 gm, respectively. Our results indicate that such variation exists in foraging sites of different as well as a single colony. There seems to be three factors: i. termites did not like the high moisture content of the soil; ii. the distance from the colony that worker would travel; iii. the termite soldiers apparently do not distribute homogeneously within their gallery system. Lower yield of termites was found in traps, which were installed in wet or irrigated field or away from the colony. While, higher yield of termites was recorded in traps, which were installed in dry field or near to the colony. Similarly, the mean number of individuals in 1.0 gm sample varied greatly in case of both species. It ranged from 539.83 ± 2.21 to 567.83 ± 9.41 and 407.67 ± 4.75 to 424.5 ± 1.15 individuals per sample for M. obesi and O. lokanandi, respectively (Tables 1 and 2). This variation is due to the size and age of the individuals of foraging groups. The traps which were installed near the colony were found to have adult workers, soldiers as well as nymphs and therefore a large number of individuals were recorded in 1.0 gm sample. The traps which were installed faraway from the colony were found to have the adult workers, soldiers and therefore, less number was recorded in 1.0 gm sample. Variations were also found in mean number of individuals of M. obesi per gram sample of the different traps. A considerable intra-specific variation exists in termite colonies (Su and Fage 1984). Feeding at baits was negative correlated with soil moisture for Coptotermes getroi (Wasmann) and positive correlated with soil moisture for Heterotermes longiceps (Synder) (Santos et al. 2010).
Comparison on the number of individuals of the two species per sample shows a great variation. A significantly greater number of M. obesi was observed as compared to O. lokanandi. The minimum number (539.83 ± 2.21) of the former species is more than the mean maximum number (424.5 ± 1.15) of the latter (Tables 1 and 2). This variation is due to the different size of the two species. Individuals of M. obesi are smaller in size than individuals of O. lokanandi so, more individuals were counted in 1 gm sample. The two termite species were also found different greatly in yield per trap and number per 1.0 gm sample. The maximum yield of M. obesi per trap was 1.12 ± 0.28 gm, while of O. lokanandi 0.82 ± 0.19 gm. This variation shows that the termite population in the colony of M. obesi is high as compare to O. lokanandi so, more termites come to the foraging point. The number of individuals in a termite colony varies with species (Badawi et al. 1984).
Foraging ecology of subterranean termites
Foraging activity of M. obesi and O. lokanandi colonies appeared to be dependent on temperature. On average, greater percentage of the wooden stakes were attacked in summer than in winter. Analysis of the number of termites captures by NIFA-TERMAPs and environmental factors indicated that maximum temperature and precipitation influenced the foraging activity of either species of termites, while relative humidity did not influence the foraging activity (Figure 2). No biomass of both termite species was collected in winter months when the temperature was low (December, January, February and March), while the relative humidity was recorded high. Moreover, much water was retained in the soil during the winter period of the study. When the temperature increased, maximum numbers of termite were captured (Figure 2). Subterranean termites will not forage in areas where soil surface temperature is too hot or too cold (Haverty et al. 1974; La Fage et al. 1976; Smith and Rust 1994).
The result shows positive and significantly different correlation among atmospheric temperature, precipitation and both subterranean termite species (M. obesi and O. lokanandi), however, correlation was recorded negative and non-significantly different among relative humidity and both termites species i.e. M. obesi and O. lokanandi (Table 3).
In the present studies peaked foraging activities of subterranean termite were recorded in summer months when the temperature and precipitation were high, ground and atmospheric temperature is favorable for termites foraging in summer and fall. Rainfall during the evaluation period was also contributed to the termites being more active. Rain makes soil moist, and termites need moisture to survive and develop. The correlation of termite catch with climatic conditions indicated that the activity of O. obesus, O. horni and O. feae was significantly correlated with minimum temperature, maximum soil temperature, minimum relative humidity, total rainfall and number of rainy days (Shanbhang and Sundararaj 2011). Foraging activities of termites have been correlated with both temperature and rainfall (Evans and Gleason 2001). Johnson and Whitford (1975) and Ueckert et al. (1976) have however, reported that foraging activity is correlated to considerable extent with soil moisture and temperature. Abushaman and Al-Houty (1988) have also reported positive correlation between termite activity and soil moisture content. Potter (2004) stated that subterranean termites are very vulnerable to desiccation and require a constant supply of moisture. In addition, temperature has strong influence on termite foraging and seasonal activities. Lenz and Evans (2002) stated that subterranean habits are widely assumed to reduce adverse effect of weather.
Caste composition of foraging groups of subterranean termites
The results revealed that the foragers captured throughout the observation period were predominantly workers. Mean population of workers ranged from 93.53 ± 1.73 to 97.68 ± 0.40 and 91.69 ± 1.42 to 98.41 ± 0.50 percent for M. obesi and O. lokanandi, respectively (Table 1 and Table 2). The variation in percent workers suggests that environmental factors viz., temperature; relative humidity and rainfall affect the ratio of the workers to soldiers. The results (Table 4) shows positive and significant correlation between atmospheric temperature and percent workers of M. obesi; while negative and non-significant between atmospheric temperature and percent workers of O. lokanandi. Negative and significant correlation was noted between relative humidity and percent workers of M. obesi; whereas, positive and significant correlation was recorded between relative humidity and percent workers of O. lokanandi. Positive and non-significant correlation was recorded between precipitation and percent workers of M. obesi; while positive and significant correlation was observed between precipitation and percent workers of O. lokanand. Coptotermes getroi (Wasmann) was found negative correlated with soil moisture; whereas Heterotermes longiceps (Synder) was noted positive correlated with soil moisture (Santos et al. 2010).
The caste composition in social insects can be influenced by environmental factors such as temperature. (Henderson 1998; Mao et al. 2005; Scharf et al. 2007). Furthermore, caste composition in termite colony or foraging groups of termites are known to vary with time of day, season, species, and colony size or age (Bodot 1970; Sands 1965; Bouillon 1964).
In the present studies more workers were collected as compared to soldiers in each observation from both species. This shows that the worker termites come to forage in large number as compared to soldiers. Nutting (1970) recorded 4% soldiers and 96% non soldiers in a foraging group of H. aureus. Foraging group of Gnathamitermes perplexus contain mainly workers and only about 0.4% soldiers (Nutting et al. 1973).
Abensperg-Traun M: Seasonal changes in activities of subterranean termite species (Isoptera) in western Australian wheat belt habitats. Aus. J. Ecol. 1991, 16: 331-336.
Abushaman FT, Al-Houty WA: The foraging activity of subterranean termites in the Kuwait desert. J Arid Environ 1988, 14: 75-82.
Badawi A, Faragalla AA, Dabbour A: Population studies of some species of termites in Al-Karj Aasis, Central Region of Saudi Arabia. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie 1984, 97: 253-261.
Bignell DE, Eggleton P: Termites. In Encyclopedia of ecology and environmental management. Edited by: Calow P. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1998:744-746.
Bodot P: La composition des colonies de Cubitermes subcrenulatus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae). C. R. Acad. Sci Ser. D. 1970, 271: 327-330.
Bouillon A: Etudes de la composition des socites dans trios especes d, Apicotermes. In Etudes sur les termites Africans. Edited by: Bouillon A. Paris: Masson; 1964:181-191.
Chaudhry MI, Ahmad M, Malik NK, Akhtar MS, Arshad M: Termites of Pakistan: Identification, distribution and ecological relationship. Final technical report, PL-480 Project No. A17-fs-12 Peshawar. 1972, 70.
Collins NM: Population age structure and survivorship of colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus ( Isoptera: Macrotermitinae). J Anim Ecol 1981, 50: 293-311.
Daves-Gromadski T, Spain A: Seasonal patterns in the activity and species richness of surface-foraging termites (Isoptera) at paper baits in a tropical Australian savanna. J Trop Ecol 2003, 19: 449-456.
Dawes-Gromadzki TZ: Termite (Isoptera) fauna of a monsoonal rainforest near Darwin, northern Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology. 2005, 44: 152-157.
Dibog I, Eggelton P, Forzi F: Seasonality of soil termites in a humid tropical forest. Mbalmayo, southern Cameroon. J Trop Ecol 1998, 14: 841-850.
Edwards R, Mill AE: Termites in buildings. East Grinstead, Great Britian: Rentokil Ltd; 1986.
Esenther GR: Estimating the size of subterranean termites by a release-recapture technique. Stockholm, Sweden: Inter. Res. Group on wood Preserv; 1980:5. Doc. No. IRG/WP/1112
Esenther GR, Beal RH: Attractant-mirex bait suppresses activities of Reticulitermes spp. J Econ Entomol 1974, 67: 85-88.
Esenther GR, Beal RH: Insecticidal baits on field plot perimeters suppress Reticulitermes spp . J Econ Entomol 1978, 71: 604-607.
Evans TA, Gleason PV: Seasonal and daily activity patterns of subterranean, wood eating termite foragers. Aus. J. Zool. 2001, 49: 311-321.
Gay FJ, Greaves T: The population of a mound colony of Coptotermes lacteus (Frogg) J. Council Sci. Indus. Res. Australia 1940, 13: 145-149.
Grace JK, Abdallay A, Farr KR: Eastern subterranean termite. (Isoptera: Rhino.) foraging territories and populations in Toronto. Can. Entomol. 1989, 121: 551-556.
Grasse PP: Comportement et particularités physiologiques des soldats de termites. Bull. Soc. Zool. France 1939, 64: 251-262.
Haagsma KA, Rust MK: Colony size estimates, foraging trends, and physiological characteristics of western termite (Isoptera: Rhino.). Environ Entomol 1995, 24: 1520-1528.
Haverty MI, LaFage JP, Nutting WL: Seasonal activity and environmental control of foraging of the subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Synder) in desert grassland. Life Sci 1974, 15: 1091-1101.
Haverty MI, Getty GH, Copren KA, Lewis VR: Seasonal foraging and feeding behavior of Reticulitermes spp . (Isoptera: Rhino.) in a wild land and residential location in northern California. Environ. Entomol Lanham, Md 1999, 28(6):1,077-1,084.
Haverty MI, Tabuchi RI, Vargo EL, Cox DL, Nelson LJ, Lewis VR: Response of Reticulitermes hesperus (Isoptera: Rhino.) colony to baiting with lufenuron in northern California. J. Eco. Entomol. 2010, 103: 770-780.
Henderson GR: Primer pheromones and possible soldiers caste influences on the evaluation of sociality in lower termites. In pheromone Communication in Social Insect. Edited by: Vander Meer RK, Breed MD, Espelie KE, Winston ML. Boulder: West view press; 1998.
Holdaway FG, Gy FJ, Greaves T: The termite population of a mound colony of E. exitiosus Hill. J. Council Sci. Industrial Res. Australia 1935, 8: 42-46.
Howard RW, Jones SC, Mouldin JK, Beal RH: Abundance, and colony size estimates for Reticulitermes spp . (Isoptera, Rhin.) in Southern Mississippi. Environ Entomol 1982, 11: 1290.
Inward D, Beccaloni G, Eggleton P: Death of an order: a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic study confirms that termites are eusocial cockroaches. Biol Lett 2007, 3(3):331-335.
Johnson RA, Whitford WG: Relative distribution of termites and micro-arthropods to fluff grass litter disappearance of chihuahuan desert. Oecologia 1975, 67: 31-34.
Jones SC: Field evaluation of fenoxycarb as a bait toxicant for subterranean termite control. Sociobiology 1989, 15: 33-41.
Kambhampati S, Eggleton P: Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Termites. In Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology. Edited by: Abe T, Bignell DE, Higashi M. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000:1-23.
Krishna K: Introduction. In Biology of termites, vol. I. Edited by: Krishna K, Weeneer FM. New York: Academic Press; 1969:1-17.
La Fage JP, Haverty MI, Nutting WL: Environmental factors correlated with foraging behavior of a desert subterranean termite, Gnathamitermes perplexus (Banks) ( Isoptera: Termitidae). Sociobiology 1976, 2: 155-169.
La Fage JP, Su N-Y, Jones MJ, Esenther GR: A rapid method for collecting large numbers of subterranean termites from wood. Sociobiology 1983, 7: 305-309.
Lenz M, Evans TA: Termite bait technology: perspective from Australia. Edited by: Jones SC, Zhai J, Robinson WH. Chaleston, South Carolina: Proceeding of the 4th International Conference on Urban Pests; 2002:27-36.
Mao L, Henderson G, Lui Y, Laine RA: Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhino.) soldiers regulate juvenile hormone levels and caste differentiation in workers. Annuals of the Entomo. Society of America 2005, 98: 340-345.
Mesenger MT, Su NY: Colony characteristics and seasonal activity of Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhino.) in Louis Armstrong park. New Orleans, Louisiana. J. Entomol. Sci. 2005, 40: 268-279.
Moura FM, Vasconcellos SA, Araujo VFP, Bandiera AG: Seasonality in foraging behaviour of Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. Insects. Sociobiology. 2006, 53: 453-479.
Nizami MM, Shafiq IM, Rashid A, Aslam M: The soil and their agricultural Development Potential in Pothowar. NARC, Islamabad: Water Resources Research Institute and Land Resources Research Programme; 2004.
Noirot CH, Noirot-Timothee C: The Digestive System. In Biology of termites, vol. I. Edited by: Krishna K, Weesner FM. NY: Academic Press; 1969:49-88.
Nutting WL: Composition and size of some termite colonies in Arizona and Mexico. Ann Entomol Soc Am 1970, 63: 1105-1110.
Nutting WL, Haverty MI, La Fage JP: Foraging behaviour of two species of subterranean termites in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. London: Proc. 7th Int. Congr., Int. Union Study social Insects; 1973:298-301. Sept. 10–15
Ohiaqu CE: Nest and Soil population of Trinervitermes spp. With particular reference to T. geminatus ( Wasmann) (Isoptera) in Southern Guinea savanna near Mokwa, Nigera. Oecologia 1979, 40: 167-178.
Pearce MJ: Termites- Biology and pest management. New York: CAB International; 1997. 172 pp
Potter MF: Termites. In Handbook of pest control. 9th edition. Edited by: Mallis A, Hedges SA, Moreland D. Cleveland, OH: GIE Media Inc.; 2004:217-361.
Rashid MA, Niazi BH, Khattak Z: Impact of soil on vegetation in Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. Vol. 1987, 13: 368-372.
Ripa R, Luppichini P, Su NY, Rust MK: Field evaluation of potential control strategies against the invasive eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhino.) in Chile. J Econ Entomol 2007, 100: 1391-1399.
Rohrmann GF: Biomass, distribution and respiration of colony components of Macrotermes ukuzii Fuller (Isoptera: Termitidae ) . Sociobiology 1977, 2: 283-295.
Rust MK, Haagsma K, Nyugen J: Enhancing foraging of western subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhino.) in arid environments. Sociobiology 1996, 28: 275-286.
Salihah Z, Khatoon R, Khan A, Alamzeb , Sattar A: A termite trap, NIFA Termap for capturing large number of field population of Heterotermes indicola . Proc. Pakistan Congr. Zool 1993, 13: 395-400.
Sands WA: Mound population movements and fluctuations in Trinervitermes ebenerianus Sjo-stedt (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae ) . Insects Sociaux 1965, 12: 49-58.
Santos MN, Teixeira MIF, Pereira MB, Menezes EB: Environmental factors influencing the foraging and feeding behavior of two termite species (Isoptera: Rhino.) in the natural habitats. Sociobiology 2010, 55: 763-777.
Scharf ME, Buckspan EC, Grzymala TF, Zhou X: Regulation of polyphonic differentiation in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes by interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. J Exp Biol 2007, 24: 4390-4398.
Shanbhang RR, Sundararaj R: Season wood degradation activity of Odontotermes. spp . (Isoptera: Termitidae) in Bangalore urban district, India. Journal of Biodiversity and Ecological Sciences 2011, .
Smith JL, Rust MK: Temperature preferences of the western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes Hesperus Banks. J Arid Environ 1994, 28: 313-323.
Su N-Y, Fage L: Comparison of laboratory methods for estimating wood-consumption rates by Coptotermes formasanus (Isoptera: Rhino.). Ann Entomol Soc Am 1984, 77: 125-129.
Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH: A method to access, traps, and monitor field populations of the Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the urban environment. Sociobiology 1986, 12: 299-304.
Su N-Y, Scheffrahn RH: Foraging population and territory of the Formsan subterranean termite (Isoptera : Rhino.) in an urban environment. Sociobiology 1988, 14: 353-359.
Su N-Y, Tamashiro M, Yates JR: Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro bait, document IRG/WP/1163. Stockholm, Sweden: The international Research Group on wood Preservation; 1982.
Ueckert N, Bodine CL, Spears M: Population density and biomass of the desert termite, Gnathamitermes tubiformans (Isoptera: Termitidae) in a short grass. Relationship to temperature and moisture. Ecology 1976, 57: 1273-1280.
Weesner FM: Termites of the nearctic region. In Biology of termites, Vol. II. Edited by: Krishna K, Weesner FM. New York: Academic Press; 1969:477-525.
I am very grateful to Dr. Muhammad Naeem and Dr. Ehsan-ul-Haq for their technical help during the investigation. My sincere thanks to Dr. Muhammad Asif and Dr. Muhammad Munir for helping me in analysis of the data. I am very grateful to Dr. Muhammad Tariq for his helpful comments. The author is thankful to his parents for their financial support.
The authors declared that they have no competing interest.
Mr. AS, who was the principal Author, is doing Ph.D at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi-Pakistan under the supervision of Dr. MN (Supervisor) and Dr. E-ul-H (Co-Supervisor). You know that in Ph.D all the work regarding research and wright-up have to be done by the students. That is why Mr. AS had performed all the activities under supervision of the above mentioned supervisors. In addition, all authors have read and approved the final Manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Sattar, A., Naeem, M. & ul-Haq, E. Impact of environmental factors on the population dynamics, density and foraging activities of Odontotermes lokanandi and Microtermes obesi in Islamabad. SpringerPlus 2, 349 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-349
- O. lokanandi
- M. obesi
- NIFA TERMAPs
- Relative humidity