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  1. Content type: Research

    A new adaptive switching algorithm is presented where two adaptive filters are switched correspondingly for lower and higher noise ratio of the image. An adaptive center weighted vector median filter is used f...

    Authors: K. Pritamdas, Kh. Manglem Singh and L. Lolitkumar Singh

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1969

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  2. Content type: Research

    Based on conventional approaches for the integration of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) on electric distribution networks, SFCL models largely rely on the insertion of a step or e...

    Authors: Xiuchang Zhang, Harold S. Ruiz, Jianzhao Geng, Boyang Shen, Lin Fu, Heng Zhang and Tim A. Coombs

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1972

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  3. Content type: Case study

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer often have pulmonary symptoms with varying aetiologies. Transtuzumab is an extremely important drug used in the treatment of Her 2 neu over-expressing breast cancers. In ...

    Authors: Ajay Gupta, Louise Teo, Philip Masel, David Godbolt and Geoffrey Beadle

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1964

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  4. Content type: Research

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus showing a high degree of genetic variation as a consequence of its proofreading inability. This variation plays an important role in virus evolution and pathogenesis. Althou...

    Authors: Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul, Surachet Benjathummarak, Hyun Ngoc Son, Supatra Thongrungkiat and Pongrama Ramasoota

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1960

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  5. Content type: Research

    Surgical intestinal resection margins in colon cancer are a longstanding debate in terms the optimal distance between the tumor and the colonic section line. The aim of this study is to define the oncological ...

    Authors: Ricardo Rocha, Rui Marinho, David Aparício, Marta Fragoso, Marta Sousa, António Gomes, Carlos Leichsenring, Carla Carneiro, Vasco Geraldes and Vítor Nunes

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1959

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  6. Content type: Research

    We introduce and study k-commuting permutations. One of our main results is a characterization of permutations that k-commute with a given permutation. Using this characterization, we obtain formulas for the numb...

    Authors: Rutilo Moreno and Luis Manuel Rivera

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1949

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  7. Content type: Research

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is widespread concerned. The reliability of reactor protection system (RPS) is directly related to the safety of NPPs, however, it is...

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Ya-Nan He, Peng-Fei Gu, Wei-Hua Chen and Feng Gao

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1953

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  8. Content type: Research

    Paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is becoming a serious health problem in Asian countries particularly Pakistan, China and India and situation is aggravated by current unavailabi...

    Authors: Zainab Rahmat, Aamir Ali, Yasra Sarwar, Muhammad Salman and Abdul Haque

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1954

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  9. Content type: Research

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft normed rings by soft set theory. The notio...

    Authors: Vakkas Uluçay, Mehmet Şahin and Necati Olgun

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1950

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  10. Content type: Research

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a very effective indoor and outdoor pesticide. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the survival time, hemodynamics, and cardiac biochemical parameters at vari...

    Authors: Fakhreddin Taghaddosinejad, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Mahdi Ghazanfari-Nasrabad, Nastaran Eizadi-Mood, Morteza Hajihosseini and Omid Mehrpour

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1948

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  11. Content type: Research

    The use of Trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. In this context, t...

    Authors: Shalini Rai, Prem Lal Kashyap, Sudheer Kumar, Alok Kumar Srivastava and Pramod W. Ramteke

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1939

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  12. Content type: Research

    In identifying to-be-improved product component(s), the customer/user requirements which are mainly considered, and achieved through customer surveys using the quality function deployment (QFD) tool, often fai...

    Authors: Daniel O. Aikhuele and Faiz B. M. Turan

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1938

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  13. Content type: Research

    In the past few decades, a significant volume of work has been carried out on various aspects of the state estimation problem to estimate an optimum state vector of the power system. This problem has been focu...

    Authors: Zahid Khan, Radzuan Bin Razali, Hanita Daud, Nursyarizal Mohd Nor, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad and Katrina Lane Krebs

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1943

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  14. Content type: Research

    Here, we extend the notion of (E.A.) property in a convex metric space defined by Kumar and Rathee (Fixed Point Theory Appl 1–14, 2014) by introducing a new class of self-maps which satisfies the common property ...

    Authors: Savita Rathee, Kusum Dhingra and Anil Kumar

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1940

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  15. Content type: Research

    Dengue is one of the most important emerging diseases of humans, with no preventive vaccines or antiviral cures available currently. In 2014, the Southeast Asian region experienced an unprecedented outbreak of...

    Authors: Pei Wang, Huiling Wang, Jianhai Yu, Qian Xie, Zhiwei Yao, Zhiran Qin, Weizhi Lu, Jia Li, Minyi Zhang, Guangjin Cao, Zhicheng Zhong, Tianwen He, Danjuan Ma, Bao Zhang and Wei Zhao

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1942

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  16. Content type: Research

    Diets with increasing levels of energy were fed for 42 days to 200, 1-day old male broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of meat. The study was perf...

    Authors: F. Infante-Rodríguez, J. Salinas-Chavira, M. F. Montaño-Gómez, O. M. Manríquez-Nuñez, V. M. González-Vizcarra, O. F. Guevara-Florentino and J. A. Ramírez De León

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1937

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  17. Content type: Research

    Dyspnea is one of the most common and distressing symptoms that occurs in terminal cancer patients. However, there are no existing treatment guidelines for this condition in China.

    Authors: Cong Tian, Jiong-Yi Wang, Mei-Ling Wang, Bin Jiang, Lu-Lu Zhang and Feng Liu

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1945

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  18. Content type: Research

    This manuscript implements a maximum likelihood based approach that is appropriate for equally spaced longitudinal count data with over-dispersion, so that the variance of the outcome variable is larger than e...

    Authors: Victoria Gamerman, Matthew Guerra and Justine Shults

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1935

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  19. Content type: Research

    The water entry of a submersible aircraft, which is transient, highly coupled, and nonlinear, is complicated. After analyzing the mechanics of this process, the change rate of every variable is considered. A d...

    Authors: BaoWei Xu, YongLi Li, JinFu Feng, JunHua Hu, Duo Qi and Jian Yang

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1933

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  20. Content type: Research

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cognitive changes and executive functions are among the cognitive domains most affected. However, it is not completely understood which of the factor...

    Authors: Zahide Yılmaz, Nuray Voyvoda, Eda İnan, Pınar Bekdik Şirinocak and Rabia Terzi

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1934

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  21. Content type: Research

    Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a hemostatic agent of plant origin, has been registered for the prevention of clinical hemorrhages. Currently there is no data regarding the ultrastructural analysis of ABS at the...

    Authors: Emre Huri, Engin Dogantekin, Murvet Hayran, Umit Yavuz Malkan, Mine Ergun, Aysegul Firat, Yavuz Beyazit, Huseyin Ustun, Murat Kekilli, Mumtaz Dadali, Muzeyyen Astarci and Ibrahim C. Haznedaroglu

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1931

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  22. Content type: Research

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated statin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, including breast cancer cells, and evidence is accumulating on the mechanism of statin-induced apoptosis. However, despite numerou...

    Authors: Rimi Murakami, Chiehfeng Chen, Shu-Yu Lyu, Ching-En Lin, Pei-Chuan Tzeng, Tzu-Feng Wang, Juei-Chin Chang, Ying-Hua Shieh, I.-Fan Chen, Shihping Kevin Huang and Hui-Wen Lin

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1932

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  23. Content type: Research

    Certain studies have suggested that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) −857 C/T polymorphism is associated with risk of ankylosing spondylitis. However, the conclusions remain controversial. Therefore, we per...

    Authors: Yong Li, Hong-Bo Tang, Jing Bian, Bin-Bin Li and Tai-Fang Gong

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1930

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  24. Content type: Research

    A descriptive, retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prescribing practices and antibiotic use patterns in the Accident and Emergency department of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, B...

    Authors: Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Samia Shahid, Sidra Javaid, Huria Ikram, Uzma Baig and Shane Scahill

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1928

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  25. Content type: Case study

    Calcification of the ligamentum flavum (CLF) can cause myelopathy due to spinal cord compression. Only several cases in Caucasian patients have been described. Neurological deterioration can only be stopped by...

    Authors: Milaine Roet, Jochem K. H. Spoor, M. de Waal, Max J. Kros, Sanjay B. Harhangi and Ruben Dammers

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1927

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  26. Content type: Research

    High frequency financial data modelling has become one of the important research areas in the field of financial econometrics. However, the possible structural break in volatile financial time series often tr...

    Authors: Wen Cheong Chin, Min Cherng Lee and Grace Lee Ching Yap

    Citation: SpringerPlus 2016 5:1883

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