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Table 6 Spearman’s correlation co-efficients for the physico-chemical parameters and WQI for borehole water samples from selected communities in the Upper West and Northern regions of Ghana

From: Assessment of the quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the Upper West and Northern regions of Ghana

  PH Cond TDS Temp TC Turb Total Hardness Ca Mg Cl Nitrate Nitrite Fe NH4 Al WQI
pH 1.00                
Conductivity (cond) 0.39 1.00               
TDS 0.34 0.99 1.00              
Temperature 0.22 0.00 −0.02 1.00             
True colour (TC) −0.10 0.25 0.25 −0.02 1.00            
Turbidity (Turb) 0.16 −0.11 −0.12 −0.01 0.31 1.00           
Total Hardness −0.07 0.56 0.62 −0.17 0.16 −0.10 1.00          
Ca 0.25 0.72 0.73 0.01 0.28 0.05 0.65 1.00         
Mg −0.17 0.43 0.49 −0.21 0.09 −0.14 0.97 0.44 1.00        
Cl 0.06 0.27 0.24 0.01 0.22 −0.13 −0.06 0.10 −0.10 1.00       
Nitrate −0.12 0.43 0.49 −0.05 0.31 −0.14 0.59 0.36 0.58 0.16 1.00      
Nitrite −0.15 0.43 0.46 0.00 0.49 0.01 0.54 0.40 0.51 0.26 0.74 1.00     
Total Iron −0.29 0.01 0.05 −0.05 0.09 −0.07 0.28 0.13 0.29 0.02 0.39 0.51 1.00    
NH4 0.24 −0.06 −0.06 0.06 −0.07 −0.06 −0.13 −0.24 −0.08 0.14 0.04 −0.17 −0.17 1.00   
Al −0.19 −0.18 −0.17 −0.41 −0.08 −0.08 −0.21 −0.30 −0.14 0.11 −0.12 −0.05 −0.02 −0.07 1.00  
WQI 0.05 0.53 0.57 −0.10 0.61 0.52 0.70 0.61 0.63 0.06 0.57 0.66 0.25 −0.12 −0.20 1.00
  1. Analysis was carried out at p ≤ 0.05. Numbers in italics indicate significant positive correlations