Skip to main content

Table 4 Physico-chemical parameters of borehole water samples from selected communities in the Upper West and Northern regions of Ghana

From: Assessment of the quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the Upper West and Northern regions of Ghana

  Mean Median SD Minimum Maximum WHO standard Percentage compliance (%)
pH 6.87 6.87 0.31 6.14 7.50 8.50 100
Conductivity 373.32 320.50 175.49 131.00 873.00 1400.00 100
TDS 218.21 192.70 109.20 80.10 524.00 1000.00 100
Temperature 30.88 31.00 0.90 28.80 32.80 25.00 0
True colour 11.46 5.00 22.26 5.00 130.00 15.00 94
Turbidity 4.49 0.63 15.29 0.13 105.00 5.00 92
Total alkalinity 121.82 112.50 48.73 48.00 240.00 ND ND
Total hardness 178.07 185.00 100.62 22.00 337.50 500.00 100
Ca hardness 55.28 51.00 28.24 14.00 116.00 ND ND
Mg hardness 122.79 121.50 84.87 6.00 311.50 ND ND
Calcium ions 22.11 20.40 11.30 5.60 46.40 75.00 100
Magnesium ions 29.84 29.50 20.62 1.46 75.70 50.00 78
Chloride ions 13.97 15.00 6.36 5.30 44.00 250.00 100
Nitrate-nitrogen 2.09 2.00 1.33 0.00 6.00 10.00 100
Nitrite-nitrogen 0.26 0.05 0.39 0.00 2.00 3.00 100
Total iron 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.25 0.30 100
Ammonium ions 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.08 1.50 100
Fluoride ions 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 100
Aluminium ions 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.20 100
Arsenic 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 100
Most probable number (MPN) index 1.60 0.00 4.48 0.00 16.00 0.00 86