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Table 1 Soil group properties

From: Use of a 10.22 m diameter EPB shield: a case study in Beijing subway construction

Soil group Natural density (g/cm3) Dry density (g/cm3) Porosity Liquid limit (%) Plastic limit (%) SPT N-values
Backfill 1.58–1.65
Silt and silty clay 1.89–2.08 1.43–1.76 0.349–0.476 26.1–40.9 17.6–25.4
Fine and medium sand 2.02–2.10 23–53