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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for the study variables (outpatient analysis, age 18+)

From: Thailand’s universal coverage scheme and its impact on health-seeking behavior

Variables Sick group (n = 10,363) Non-sick group (n = 30,158) Overall group (n = 40,521)
Mean or percent Std. Dev Mean or percent Std. Dev Mean or percent Std. Dev
Health-seeking behavior
No care 11.22%      
Informal care 18.89%      
Designated facility care 59.65%      
Non-designated facility care 10.23%      
OOP payment
Informal care 81.32 149.84     
Designated facility care 55.44 448.40     
Non-designated facility care 777.40 1472.00     
Income 8244.68 13,678.83 9429.25 11,401.58 9126.30 12,036.01
Income (log transformed) 8.54 1.27 8.76 1.08 8.70 1.13
Age 56.44 16.09 44.34 15.88 47.44 16.79
Gender
Male 39.26%   48.67%   46.26%  
Female 60.74%   51.33%   53.74%  
Education
Primary school or below 81.84%   62.68%   67.58%  
Middle or high school 15.78%   32.36%   28.12%  
College or above 2.38%   4.96%   4.30%  
Marital status
Single 10.20%   19.77%   17.32%  
Married 64.36%   67.83%   66.94%  
Divorced/widowed/separated 25.44%   12.40%   15.74%  
Employment status
Yes 61.68%   77.38%   73.36%  
No 38.32%   22.62%   26.64%  
Dual coverage
Yes 4.32%   4.67%   4.58%  
No 95.68%   95.33%   95.42%  
Chronic status
Yes 65.49%   10.64%   24.67%  
No 34.51%   89.36%   75.33%  
Region
Urban 47.86%   52.71%   51.47%  
Rural 52.14%   47.29%   48.53%  
  1. Std. Dev, standard deviation; OOP Payment, out-of-pocket payment; Median (interquartile range Q1–Q3) of out-of-pocket payment for informal care = 50 (20–100); Median (interquartile range Q1–Q3) of out-of-pocket payment for designated facility care = 0 (0–0); Median (interquartile range Q1–Q3) of out-of-pocket payment for non-designated facility care = 320 (200–600); Median (interquartile range Q1–Q3) of income for sick group = 5813.78 (3265.99–9899.49)