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Table 1 Evaluation of some typical characteristics of citizen surveillance data

From: Citizen surveillance for environmental monitoring: combining the efforts of citizen science and crowdsourcing in a quantitative data framework

  Type of citizen science
Structured Unstructured Crowdsourcing
Control over observation process \({+}{+}\) \({-}\) \({-}{-}\)
Data quantity \({-}/{+}\) \({-}/{+}\) \({+}\)
Signal-to-noise ratio \({+}{+}\) \({-}/{+}\) \({-}{-}\)
Temporal coverage \({-}/{+}\) \({+}\) \({+}\)
Spatial coverage \({-}/{+}\) \({+}\) \({+}\)
  1. Choosing a type of citizen surveillance will typically be a trade-off between data quality and data quantity
  2. Symbol legend: \({+}{+}\) Good; \({+}\) Moderate; \({-}/{+}\) Variable; \({-}\) Low; \({-}{-}\) Bad