Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary statistics of trace elements in rice grains from different climatic zone of Sri Lanka (in µg/kg in dry weight basis; SD-standard deviation)

From: Trace elements in native and improved paddy rice from different climatic regions of Sri Lanka: implications for public health

  Li B Al Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn As Se Sr Mo Cd Ba Pb Bi
Wet zone (n = 81)
Min 2.5 2.5 2987 36.8 2995 3481 1.8 74.2 510 4525 2.48 2.32 31.2 144 0.6 231 2.47 0.32
Max 61 1931 23,976 1113 34,716 46,745 429 7641 6770 33,745 213 168 859 2108 576 4006 1277 86.6
Mean 10 839 8183 277 18,086 14,078 77 1026 2467 15,473 48 30 319 787 128 1433 257 4.74
Median 2 777 6876 203 18,038 11,833 44 571 2333 15,522 40 19 281 745 79 1243 192 2
SD 11 427 3700 215 8235 8234 92 1342 1148 4994 40.8 33.8 193 401 137 824 286 12
Intermediate zone (n = 70)
Min 2.5 2.5 2744 13 1798 2036 1.2 65 442 2532 2.5 0.54 14.6 0.88 2.34 176 2.48 2.47
Max 37 1543 16,972 520 28,448 40,589 296 6854 4802 21,320 143 156 720 1953 213 3060 945 69
Mean 6.5 650 8145 219 13,419 12,079 81 1012 2264 11,672 38 24 213 762 54 988 271 4
Median 2.5 611 7865 230 14,006 10,811 67 466 2212 11,669 34 14 184 712 38 898 254 2.5
SD 7 356 2802 129 7317 7806 66 1436 1080 5086 31 29 158 389 45 563 227 8
Dry zone (n = 75)
Min 2.5 2.5 3273 23 2139 1724 6.5 51 381 2772 2.5 2.1 28.5 3.0 0.6 209.7 0.6 2.5
Max 61.4 4622 13,700 362 41,710 41,614 398 2518 5547 33,247 186 261 1076 1857 282 3631 916 14.4
Mean 8.5 1016 7705 154 16,153 13,666 82 577 2430 13,156 41 44 342 673 68 1152 322 3.3
Median 2 859 7537 156 17,627 12,280 63 366 2156 13,950 29 26 288 597 52 990 242 2
SD 10.8 915 2534 85 11,272 9377 80 581 1267 6947 39 55 243 446 66 731 239 2.2
Native rice (n = 21)
Min 2.5 75.3 3441 160 10,354 5838 21 148 595 7603 2.5 2.5 102 300 8.0 532 1.5 2.5
Max 40 1962 39,789 614 39,467 44,135 199 2262 3488 34,780 143 192 1142 1055 72 3173 1338 39
Mean 9 1137 10,353 285 20,729 20,136 103 542 2167 22,605 74 69 480 573 33 1622 385 11
Median 2 1154 7809 241 19,750 19,529 95 394 2074 21,410 80 78 394 524 27 1647 110 7
SD 11 498 8702 109 6993 9006 58 516 833 5597 42 64 281 200 19 720 536 11
Sri Lanka improved (all; n = 226)
Min 2.5 2.5 2744 13.3 1798 1724 1.2 50.9 381 2532 2.5 0.5 14.6 0.9 0.6 176 0.6 0.3
Max 61 4622 23,976 1113 41,710 46,745 429 7641 6770 33,745 213 261 1076 2108 576 4006 1277 87
Mean 8.3 839 8013 218 16,010 13,319 80 876 2392 13,527 43 33 294 741 85 1203 283 4.1
Median 2.5 750 7434 182 16,809 11,696 57 453 2212 14,149 34 19 257 681 55 1083 236 2.5
SD 10 634 3071 163 9278 8512 80 1198 1167 5934 38 42 208 414 99 742 254 8
Improved white rice (n = 163)
Min 2.5 2.5 2744 13.3 1798 1724 6.5 51 558 2532 2.5 0.5 19.7 0.9 0.6 232 0.6 0.3
Max 61 4622 38,161 1002 41,710 46,745 429 7641 5276 33,247 186 261 1076 2108 344 4006 1277 69
Mean 8.3 868 8250 210 16,453 13,117 95 944 2434 13,526 42 36 304 741 70 1245 314 3.5
Median 2.5 772 7535 180 17,464 11,673 68 491 2353 14,162 34 25 259 678 47 1083 263 2.5
SD 10.2 658 4098 142 9456 8097 89 1262 1101 5740 34 44 212 418 66 749 263 5.8
Improved red rice (n = 63)
Min 2.5 2.5 4766 23 2476 2936 1.2 56 381 3205 2.5 2.1 15 3.0 2.5 176 2.5 1.2
Max 37 3136 14,031 1113 34,716 43,346 128 5087 6770 33,745 213 125 766 2037 576 3005 860 87
Mean 8.4 763 7894 240 14,871 13,829 42 693 2283 13,527 45 25 267 742 123 1097 203 5.5
Median 2.5 693 7192 188 15,851 12,118 38 314 2117 14,128 34 8 241 700 73 1078 120 2.5
SD 8.7 561 2267 207 8773 9529 27 995 1324 6452 46 35 195 408 149 717 211 13