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Table 2 Overview of CCA actions in Tyrolean mountain agriculture

From: The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria)

No. CCA action Connection to CCA No. CCA action Connection to CCA
1 Extended mountain grazing Extension of the vegetation period requires adaptation of the grazing management 16 Gene bank of the province of Tyrol See 9
2 Drought tolerant varieties for grasslands Droughts require tolerant varieties to minimize losses 17 Initiative for climate protection and domestic food Raising awareness for regional food helps to strengthen “climate-adaptive-friendly” products
3 Hail-nets Hail-nets protect sensitive crops from hail damages 18 “Tiroggl”—regional rye bread See 2
4 Low-input systems Changing global conditions lead to price volatilities. Thus, farms which are more independent of external resources (e.g. fodder) are more resilient to the impacts of CC 19 “Fisser Gerste”—regional barley cultivation and marketing Ancient grains have a broad diversity of genetic resources, which can contribute to adaptation
5 Organic farming Organic farming is better adapted to climate change in some aspects (e.g. humus content of the soil) 20 “LEBA” association for information, consultation and marketing of regional, organic products Organic farming is better adapted to climate change in some aspects. Moreover, awareness raising of customers towards “climate-adaptive friendly” products is essential to create a demand for such products
6 “Schmatzi”—awareness raising for young children Raising awareness for domestic food among the youngest helps to strengthen “climate-adaptive-friendly” products 21 Tyrolean mountain pasture pig One CCA measure is to preserve mountain pastures. Developing innovative products that achieve an added value from the pastures can make an important contribution
7 “School on the farm” Raising awareness for domestic food among children helps to strengthen “climate-adaptive-friendly” products 22 Quality Tyrol—direct marketing of domestic products Creating regional sales opportunities reduces farmers’ dependencies on retail chains and exports. This makes the farmers more resilient when global conditions change
8 Sustainability prize Sustainable producing farms are in many aspects better adapted to CC. Hence, raising awareness in this field is fundamental 23 Project: “Almleben”—strengthening added values and economic performances on mountain pastures See 22
9 Project: CereAlps—collection, and preservation of landraces Ancient grains have a broad diversity of genetic resources, which can contribute to adaptation 24 “Bio vom Berg”—producer-owned brand for organic products from Tyrol Organic farming is better adapted to climate change in some aspects (e.g. humus content of the soil)
10 Ancient Tyrolean grains See 9 25 “Gutes vom Bauernhof”—direct marketing of domestic products See 22
11 Project: Gene-Save - potential uses of bread grain landraces See 9 26 Association for defense and research of hail Although the link between climate change and an increase of hail is not scientifically evident, damage sums are rising and hail defense can be an adaptation strategy
12 Project: Organic mountain agriculture in Tyrol Direct connection to CCA within the project 27 Insurances against natural disasters (droughts in pastures) Insurance covers for extreme events, such as droughts, help farmers to overcome serious damages
13 Project: Capital Adapt—the role of social and human capital regarding climate change adaptation Direct connection to CCA within the project 28 Association of farm women The farm women’s network strengthens social and human capital which enhance resilience against CC (esp. extremes)
14 Project: Clim Grass—climate change impacts in grasslands Direct connection to CCA within the project 29 “Quality of life on farms” Strengthening farmers personal resources enhances resilience against CC
15 Tyrolean climate strategy Direct connection to CCA within the strategy