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Table 1 Common conceptual differentiations of climate change adaptation

From: The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria)

Authors Differentiation between Differentiation between
Reactive CCA Anticipatory CCA Autonomous/spontaneous CCA Planned CCA
Fankhauser et al. (1999) Reactive measures are those that institutions, individuals, plants and animals are likely to make in response to climate change, after the fact Anticipatory adaptations are deliberate decisions to prepare for potential effects of climate change. They are taken in advance of climate change, before the fact Natural or spontaneous adjustments in the face of a changing climate Planned adaptation requires conscious intervention
Malik et al. (2010) Adaptation that takes place after impacts of climate change have been observed Adaptation that takes place before impacts of climate change are observed. Also referred to as proactive adaptation Adaptation that does not constitute a conscious response to climatic stimuli, but is triggered by ecological changes in natural systems and by market or welfare changes in human systems Adaptation that is the result of a deliberative policy decision, based on an awareness that conditions have changed or are about to change and that action is required to return to, to maintain, or to achieve a desired state
Smit et al. (2000)    Adaptations which occur in systems as a matter of course Those that require or result from deliberate “policy decisions”. Planned adaptations may be distinguished by the intent and timing of the initiative
Füssel (2007) …after some impacts have been experienced    Planned adaptation means the use of information about present and future cc to review the suitability of current and planned practices, policies, and infrastructure