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Table 6 The comparison of our observed performance perspectives with the perspectives taken in the most commonly used performance measurement models in the literature (Kaplan and Norton 1996, 2001; EFQM 2010; Kueng 2000; Cross and Lynch 1988)

From: Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics

Balanced scorecard (Kaplan and Norton 1996, 2001) EFQM (2010) Kueng (2000) Cross and Lynch (1988) Our observed performance perspectives
Financial perspective Key results Financial view Financial measures
Market measures
Financial performance for shareholders and top management
Customer perspective Customer results Customer view Customer satisfaction Customer performance
Supplier performance
Society performance
Internal business processes perspective Enablers (processes/products/services, people, strategy, partnerships/resources, leadership) Overall process performance based on the other views as driving forces Flexibility
Productivity
Quality
Delivery
Process time
Cost
General process performance
Time-related process performance
Cost-related process performance
Process performance related to internal quality
Flexibility-related process performance
“Learning and growth” perspective People results
Learning, creativity and innovation
Employee view
Innovation view
(Digital) innovation performance
Employee performance
Society results Societal view Society performance as a sub-perspective of customer performance (see above)