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Table 5 A description of the observed performance perspectives, linked to the Balanced scorecard (Kaplan and Norton 1996, 2001)

From: Business process performance measurement: a structured literature review of indicators, measures and metrics

Initial BSC perspectives Observed perspectives based on target groups and focus Scope of the performance indicators
1. Financial performance 1.1 Financial performance for shareholders and top management Strategic financial data
2. Customer-related performance 2.1 Customer performance Outcomes of external quality or meeting end user needs
2.2 Supplier performance External collaboration and process dependencies
2.3 Society performance Outcomes for other stakeholders and the environment during process work
3. Internal business process performance 3.1 General process performance Descriptive data of process work, not related to time, costs, quality or flexibility
3.2 Time-related process performance Time-related data of process work
3.3 Cost-related process performance Operational financial data
3.4 Process performance related to internal quality Capability of meeting end user needs and internal user needs
3.5 Flexibility-related process performance Data of changes or variants in process work
4. Performance related to “learning and growth” 4.1 (Digital) innovation performance Innovation of processes and innovation projects
4.2 Employee performance Staff contributions to process work and personal development