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Table 2 Mean concentrations in mg/L of some trace metals in water samples collected from seven human settlements along the Bosomtwe Crater Lake in the dry and wet seasons

From: Evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality and human risk assessment for trace metals in human settlements around the Bosomtwe Crater Lake in Ghana

Season Settlement Lake water Groundwater
As Fe Pb Zn Cr Cd Ni As Fe Pb Zn Cr Cd Ni
Dry (*N = 105) Anyinatiase <0.01 0.20 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.57 ± 0.41 0.12 ± 0.00 0.14 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01
Nkowi <0.01 0.37 ± 0.08 0.06 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.28 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01
Adwafo <0.01 0.22 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.58 ± 0.08 0.17 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.00 0.03 ± 0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Abrodwum <0.01 0.28 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.03 0.14 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01
Obo <0.01 0.38 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.00 0.21 ± 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.42 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01
Abono <0.01 0.35 ± 0.04 0.09 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.29 ± 0.05 0.09 ± 0.01 0.19 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.02 ± 0.00
Abease <0.01 0.27 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.21 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.02 ± 0.00
Wet (*N = 105) Anyinatiase <0.01 0.27 ± 0.12 0.11 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.03 0.02 ± 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 1.02 ± 1.29 0.12 ± 0.00 0.15 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01
Nkowi <0.01 0.29 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.00 0.12 ± 0.05 0.01 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.39 ± 0.07 0.09 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.00 0.01 ± 0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Adwafo <0.01 0.28 ± 0.03 0.09 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.53 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.09 0.25 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.02 <0.01 <0.01
Abrodwum <0.01 0.37 ± 0.05 0.05 ± 0.05 0.14 ± 0.00 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.32 ± 0.06 0.07 ± 0.08 0.14 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 <0.01
Obo <0.01 1.99 ± 0.77 0.06 ± 0.00 0.16 ± 0.03 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.46 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.03 0.01 ± 0.01 <0.01 <0.01
Abono <0.01 0.49 ± 0.08 0.04 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.02 <0.01 0.37 ± 0.05 0.05 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.19 ± 0.05
Abease <0.01 0.30 ± 0.02 0.07 ± 0.08 0.09 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.02 <0.01 0.26 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.07 0.16 ± 0.02 0.01 ± 0.00 <0.01 0.19 ± 0.03
  1. * N = sample size, i.e. 5 samples each for groundwater and lake water for each of the 7 settlements for 3 months within each season