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Table 1 Reification of the proximity concept

From: Personal and related kinds of proximity driving collaborations: a multi-case study of Dutch nanotechnology researchers

Proximities Distinct attributesa Level of analysis
Geographical Location (pure physical distance) Macro and meso (international/national/global/local)
Institutional Formal and informal rules & regulations imposed by specific administrative geographical territories, such as countries and regional entities, including cultural aspects Macro (nation/region)
Social Embeddedness in knowledge fields, professional associations or social communities Meso (networks)
Organizational Organizational objectives and organization-specific formal and informal rules & regulations (including aspects of organizational culture) Meso (organizations)
Cognitive Knowledge areas of expertise and experience as well as reputational standing Micro (individual)
Personal Personal character traits, behavioural patterns, and enjoyment of one another’s company Micro (individual)
  1. aAdapted, revised and extended based on Caniëls et al. ( 2014, p. 232) and Boschma (2005, p. 71)