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Table 3 Distribution of study group and control group respondents’ level of empowerment based on their changed value

From: Which factor contribute most to empower farmers through e-Agriculture in Bangladesh?

Sub-parameter of empowerment (scoring method) Empowerment indicator Study group (changed mean value differences) Control group (changed mean value differences) t test value
Economic empowerment Increased income due to yield obtaining 0.955 0.674 3.728**
Saving money 1.271 0.891 6.080**
Investments 1.271 0.717 5.295**
Availing agriculture loans 1.459 0.891 4.347**
Purchase of farming inputs 1.248 1.217 3.162**
Sub total   6.203 4.391  
 Family and social empowerment Developing institutional contact 0.977 0.717 2.789**
Linkage with developing departments 0.895 0.652 1.848
Team spirit 1.105 0.761 6.514**
Leadership quality 1.218 0.869 3.919**
Group consensus to solve problem 1.293 0.783 5.449**
Sub total   5.488 3.781  
 Political empowerment Participation in social well-being activities 0.744 0.608 2.874**
Membership in the social organization 0.406 0.456 0.724
Freedom of expression 1.188 0.761 4.023**
Conflict management 1.218 0.826 2.874**
Sub total   3.556 2.652  
 Knowledge empowerment Use of machineries and equipments 0.939 0.522 4.933**
Knowledge on value addition 1.195 0.783 4.739**
Adoption of IPM practices 1.316 0.848 4.392**
Adoption of INM practices 1.188 1.217 2.031
Adoption of IWM practices 1.226 0.957 3.511**
Sub total   5.864 4.326  
 Psychological empowerment Motivation in farming 0.939 0.587 3.697**
Self esteem 1.015 0.739 4.057**
Risk taking ability 1.181 0.935 3.500**
Confidence 1.218 0.869 3.748**
Decision making ability 1.105 1.131 0.553
Sub total   5.458 4.261  
Total   26.569 19.411  
  1. ** Significance at the level of 1 % (t-value)