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Table 3 Means and standard deviations of study variables

From: Linking educational leadership styles to the HR architecture for new teachers in primary education

  N Instructional leadership Transformational leadership
M (SD)
Min 1–Max 5
M (SD)
Min 1–Max 5
Strategic orientation
 Low 59 2.88 (0.47) 3.86 (0.46)
 High 15a 3.51 (0.46) 4.32 (0.16)
HR orientation
 Low 45 3.05 (0.53) 3.94 (0.44)
 High 29a 2.95 (0.52) 3.98 (0.50)
HR architecture
 Administrative HRM 38 2.92 (0.43) 3.87 (0.43)
 Developmental HRM 21 2.81 (0.53) 3.85 (0.52)
 Strategic HRM 7 3.75 (0.52) 4.32 (0.19)
 Strategic-developmental HRM 8a 3.30 (0.28) 4.32 (0.14)
Total 74a 3.01 (0.53) 3.95 (0.46)
  1. aIn the strategic-developmental HR architecture, one outlier was detected and removed for all analyses in this study and therefore not reported in the table (see results)