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Table 2 Characteristics and differences instructional and transformational leadership

From: Linking educational leadership styles to the HR architecture for new teachers in primary education

  Instructional leadership Transformational leadership
Characteristics Defining the school mission
Framing clear school goals
Communicating clear school goals
Managing the instructional program
Supervision and evaluating instruction
Coordinating curriculum
Monitoring student progress
Creating a positive school learning climate
Protecting instructional time
Promoting professional development
Maintain high visibility
Providing incentives for teachers
Providing incentives for learning
Individualised support
Vision
Shared goals
Intellectual stimulation
Culture building
Rewards
High expectations
Modeling
Differences Top-down focus on approach to school improvement
First-order target for change
Managerial or transactional relationship to staff
Bottom-up focus on approach to school improvement
Second-order target for change
Transformational relationship to staff