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Table 2 Characteristics and differences instructional and transformational leadership

From: Linking educational leadership styles to the HR architecture for new teachers in primary education


Instructional leadership

Transformational leadership


Defining the school mission

Framing clear school goals

Communicating clear school goals

Managing the instructional program

Supervision and evaluating instruction

Coordinating curriculum

Monitoring student progress

Creating a positive school learning climate

Protecting instructional time

Promoting professional development

Maintain high visibility

Providing incentives for teachers

Providing incentives for learning

Individualised support


Shared goals

Intellectual stimulation

Culture building


High expectations



Top-down focus on approach to school improvement

First-order target for change

Managerial or transactional relationship to staff

Bottom-up focus on approach to school improvement

Second-order target for change

Transformational relationship to staff