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Table 1 A comparison of dimensions of the two models of self-regulated learning skills

From: Development and validation of a scale on self-regulation in learning (SSRL)

Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1986)

Pintrich and De Groot (1990)


Cognitive learning strategies

Organizing and transforming


Goal setting and planning


Seeking information


Keeping records and self-monitoring

Metacognitive learning strategies

Environmental structuring




Rehearsing and memorizing


Seeking social assistance (peers, teachers, and adults)

Resource management strategies

Reviewing records (tests, notes, and textbooks)

 Control and management of environment