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Table 1 General information and reports on evidence of biological activities and chemistry of the studied plants

From: Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Annona muricata, Passiflora edulis and nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines

Species (family); voucher numbera

Traditional uses

Parts used (%yield)b

Bioactive or potentially bioactive components

Bioactivity of crude extract

Alchornea floribunda Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)


Treatment of bacterial and parasitic infections, painful urination in children (Adjanohoun et al. 1996; Jiofack et al. 2009), urinary, respiratory and intestinal problems, pains in the heart, diarrhoea, ovarian problems, stomach ailments and intestinal disorders (Siwe Noundou et al. 2014), trypanosomiasis, urinary, respiratory and intestinal disorders (Musuyu Muganza et al. 2012; Mesia et al. 2008), inflammation (Okoye et al. 2011)

Bark (18.91 %) and leaves (4.56 %)

Eugenol, cadinol, nanocosaine, ethyl iso-allocholate, 3-acetoxy-7,8-epoxylanostan-1-ol (Okoye et al. 2011)

Antibacterial activities of crude against Bc, Ef, Ec, Sa, Kp, Mc, Pm, Ss (Siwe Noundou et al. 2014); topical anti-inflammatory effects (Okoye et al. 2011)

Annona muricata Lin. (Annonaceae); 18681/SRF/Cam

Treatment of wounds and insomnia; antiparasitic, insecticidal (Rajeswari 2012)

Leaves (4.50 %), seeds (9.15 %), pericarp (5.17 %)

Epomuricenins-A and B, montecristin, cohibins-A and B, muridienins-1 and 2, muridienins-3 and 4, muricadienin and chatenaytrienins-1, 2 and 3 and sabadelin, murihexol, donhexocin, annonacin A and Annonacin B (Rajeswari 2012)

Antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts against Sa, Vc, Ec, Se, Lv and On (Vieira et al. 2010) and Pv, Sp, Bs, St, Kp, Ea (Rajeswari 2012), Lb, Lp, Hv (Rajeswari 2012), Ec, Ea, Kp, Ps (Dzotam et al. 2015)

Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. (Burceraceae); 16929/SRF/Cam

Treatment of malaria, constipation, diarrhea, rheumatism and sexually transmitted diseases (Koudou et al. 2005)

Fruits (0.78 %)

Saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and steroids (Ngbede et al. 2008)

Antimicrobial activities of EO against Bc, Ef, Ec, Li, Se, Sd, Sa, Pm, Sc and Ca (Obame et al. 2007)

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae); 42352/HNC

Treatment scorpion and snake bite (Nakade et al. 2013), infectious diseases (Dzotam et al. 2015)

Leaves (6.25 %)

Quinones, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides and steroids (Nakade et al. 2013)

Antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract against St, Kp, Pa, Sp, Bs, Pv, Ec (Nakade et al. 2013) aqueous and methanolic extracts: (Q) Vspp (Lee et al. 2010)

Euphorbia prostata W. Ait. (Euphorbiaceae) 33585/HNC

Treatment of bronchial ashma, diarrhea, skin diseases (Shrama and Tripathi 1983)

Whole plant (13.82 %)

Flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acid; gallic acid, apigenin, luteolin (Gupta 2011)

Crude extract has cardiac depresent and hypotensive actions (Shrama and Tripathi 1983), showed effects on early grades of hemorrhoids (Gupta 2011)

Hibiscus esculentusL. (Tiliaceae); 8537/SRF/Cam

Treatment of cancer, inflammation, ulcer, analgesic, hyperglycemia (Daly 1997; Uraku et al. 2010)

Fruits (2.98 %)

Alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols (Dzotam et al. 2015)

Antimicrobial activities of crude extract on St, Shigella and Ec, Ea, Kp, Ps (Dzotam et al. 2015; Nwaiwu et al. 2012)

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae); 49178/HNC

Treatment of cancer, dental caries, syphilis, typhoid, diarrhea, epilepsy (Fuglie 1999), fever, HIV-AIDS (Abrams et al. 1993)

Leaves (3.95 %)

4-(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzylisothiocyanate, 4-(-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzylisothiocyanate, niazimicin, pterygospermin, benzylisothiocyanate and 4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzylglucosinolate (Fahey 2005)

Antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of seeds against Sa, Vc, Ec, Se, Lv and On (Viera et al. 2010)

Pachypodanthium staudtii Engl & Diels (Annonaceae), 23170 SFR/Cam

Treatment of cancer, Chest pain (Irvine 1961); bronchitis (Bouquet and Debray 1974) and oedema (Ngadjui et al. 1989).

Leaves (10 %), bark (9.4 %) and roots (6.25 %)

Pachypodol, 2,4,5-Trimethoxystyrene, Pachypophyllin, pachypostaudins A and B (Ngadjui et al. 1989); Sabinene, β-elemene, E-β-caryophyllene, β-selinene, β-bisabolene, δ-cadinene, 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-vinylbenzene (Yapi et al. 2012).

Methanol extract against Ec, Ea, Ecl, Kp, Ps (Fankam et al. 2014)

Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae); 65104/HNC

Treatment of cancer, fungal infections, inflammation, insomnia and anxiety, antihypertensive (Ichimura et al. 2006), gastric trouble (Silva et al. 2006), antioxidant (Kannan et al. 2011)

Fruit (3.92 %); fruit pericarp (2.73 %)

Ionone-I, ionone-II, megastigma-5,8-dien-4-1, megastigma-5,8(Z)-diene-4-1, 4,4a-Epoxy-4, 4a-dihydroedulan, 3-hydroxyedulan, edulan-I, edulan-II, passifloric acid methyl ester (Kannan et al. 2011)

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extract against Ec, Kp, Ea, Pa, Ps, Sa, Ef, Bs, Ec, Pv and St (Kannan et al. 2011)

Triumphetta pentandra A.Rich. (Tiliaceae); 9014/SRF/Cam

Induce fertility and implantation of the fetus (Okoli et al. 2007; Ngondi et al. 2005), treat infectious diseases (Dzotam et al. 2015)

Leaves (5.50 %)

Triumfettamide, triumfettoside, heptadecanoic acid, β-sitosterol glucopyranoside, friedeline, lupeol, betuline, maslinic acid, 2-hydroxyoleanolicacid and the mixture of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol (Sandjo et al. 2008; Sandjo and Kuete 2013)

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extract against Ec, Ea, Kp, Ps (Dzotam et al. 2015)

Xanthosoma mafaffa (L.) Schott (Araceae); 18675/SRF/Cam

Treatment of infectious diseases; osteoporosis (Dzotam et al. 2016; Cancer in Africa 2012)

Leaves (4.30 %)

Polyphenols, coumarins, tannins, triterpenes, sterols, saponins (Dzotam et al. 2016)

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extract against Ec, Ea, Kp (Dzotam et al. 2016)

  1. EO: essential oil; Bc: Bacillus cereus; Bs: Bacillus subtilis; Ca: Candida albicans; Ec: Escherichia coli; Ea: Enterobacter aerogenes; Ecl: Enterobacter cloacae; Ef: Enterococcus faecalis; HIV-AIDS: human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immuno deficiency syndrome; Hv: Herpes virus; Kp: Klebsiella pneumoniae; Lb: Leishmania braziliensis; Lp: Lieshmaniapanamensis; Lv: Litopenaeusvannmaei; Mc: Moraxella catarrhalis; On: Oreochromis nicoticus; Pa: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Li: Listeria innocua; Pm: Proteus mirabilis; Pv: Proteus vulgaris; Ps: Providencia stuartii; Sa: Staphylococcus aureus; Sc: Staphylococcus camorum; Sd: Shigelladysenteriae; Se: Salmonella enterica; Ss: Staphylococcus saprophyticus; Sp: Streptococcus pyogenes; St: Salmonella typhi; Vc: Vibrio cholerae; Vspp: Vibrio species; underline: disease states bearing relevance to cancer or cancer-like symptoms
  2. a(HNC): Cameroon National Herbarium; (SRF/Cam): Société des Réserves Forestières du Cameroun
  3. bYield calculated as the ratio of the mass of the obtained methanol extract/mass of the plant powder