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Table 1 Unit root tests

From: The relationship between the growth in the health sector and inbound health tourism: the case of Turkey

Variables Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) Phillips–Perron (PP)
Constant without trend Constant with trend Constant without trend Constant with trend
Level
 ln htour −2.049449 −2.764120 −1.974959 −2.718319
 ln hgdp −1.107769 −2.711389 −1.125967 −2.697990
 ln rer −2.024238 −2.470090 −2.159688 −2.571869
First difference
 ∆ ln htour −8.048863a −7.948662a −10.29624a −13.54837a
 ∆ ln hgdp −7.367436a −7.518019a −7.326674a −7.469352a
 ∆ ln rer −6.565184a −6.649881a −6.564661a −6.654715a
  1. aIndicate statistical significance at the 1 %, level