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Table 1 Input parameters for PFC2D model

From: Discrete element modeling of a mining-induced rock slide

Parameters Sandstone Carbon shale Coal
Model height (mm) 100   
Model width (mm) 50   
Particle size (mm) 0.55 (diameter)   
Number of particles 17,900   
Total time step 6 × 104   
Porosity (%) 14 14 14
Particle density (kg/m3) 3000 2700 2400
Particle friction coefficient (μ) 0.38 0.75 0.62
Bond radius ratio (λ) 1 1 1
Normal contact stiffness (GPa) 18 8.3 0.5
Shear contact stiffness (GPa) 13 4.4 0.45
Parallel bond normal stiffness (GPa) 5.3 2.4 0.26
Parallel bond shear stiffness (GPa) 3.8 1.3 0.23
Normal bond strength (MPa) 50 11 3.27
Shear bond strength (MPa) 50 11 3.27