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Table 4 Effects of dietary betaine (Bet), vitamin C (Vit. C), vitamin E (Vit. E), and their combined supplementation on some blood biochemical constituents in dual-purpose hens reared under heat stress condition

From: Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation

Parameters Control (+) Heat stress treatments SEM P value
Control (−) Control + Bet Control + Vit. C Control + Vit. E Control + Bet + Vit. C Control + Bet + Vit. E Control + Vit. C + Vit. E Control + Bet + Vit. C + Vit. E
Glucose, mg/dl 227a 208b 220a 218a 217a 225a 219a 226a 225a 2.683 0.001
Estrogen, ng/ml 618a 514c 595b 590b 577b 582b 580b 586b 597b 6.213 0.001
Progesterone, pg/ml 9.16a 6.12d 9.06ab 7.98c 7.68c 7.74c 8.08bc 8.54abc 8.70abc 0.265 0.001
Triiodothyronine, µg/dl 0.136a 0.098b 0.126a 0.124a 0.120a 0.130a 0.132a 0.128a 0.134a 0.0001 0.006
Thyroxine, µg/dl 18.2a 13.2b 17.0a 16.8a 16.4a 17.8a 17.6a 17.2a 18.0a 0.443 0.001
Triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio 0.0075 0.0074 0.0074 0.0074 0.0073 0.0073 0.0076 0.0074 0.0075 0.0001 1.000
  1. Means with at least one common superscript in a row do not differ significantly (P > 0.05)