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Table 2 Effects of dietary betaine (Bet), vitamin C (Vit. C), vitamin E (Vit. E), and their combined supplementation on some productive performance of dual-purpose hens reared under heat stress condition

From: Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation

Parameters Control (+) Heat stress treatments SEM P value
Control (−) Control + Bet Control + Vit. C Control + Vit. E Control + Bet + Vit. C Control + Bet + Vit. E Control + Vit. C + Vit. E Control + Bet + Vit. C + Vit. E
Initial body weight, g 1573 1572 1571 1573 1574 1572 1571 1582 1569 2.393 1.00
Body weight change 198a 149b 206a 190a 206a 205a 198a 203a 197a 1.604 0.001
Survival rate 100a 98.5b 100a 100a 99.2ab 100b 100b 100b 100b 0.395 0.097
Laying rate, % 68.0a 60.5f 65.5bc 65.8b 63.6e 63.9e 65.4bc 64.8cd 64.2de 0.239 0.001
Egg weight, g 50.5 49.4 50.9 50.5 49.4 49.6 49.4 49.8 49.6 0.334 0.325
Egg mass, g/d/hen 34.3a 29.9d 33.3b 33.2b 31.4c 31.7c 32.3c 32.3c 31.9c 0.256 0.001
Feed intake, g/d 135a 127h 133b 131de 130ef 132cd 129fg 132cd 129fg 0.302 0.001
Feed conversion ratio 3.95d 4.29a 3.99cd 3.94d 4.16b 4.16b 4.00cd 4.10bc 4.07bcd 0.095 0.001
  1. Means with at least one common superscript in a row do not differ significantly (P > 0.05)