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Table 13 Extracted causal rules

From: Mining precise cause and effect rules in large time series data of socio-economic indicators

Causal rules References
Transport and travel services → CO2 emission Stewart et al. (2015)
Electricity production from renewable sources → CO2 emission Abolhosseini et al. (2014)
Fossil fuel energy consumption → CO2 emission Mellios et al. (2011)
Household final consumption expenditure → CO2 emission Tian et al. (2016)
Industry → CO2 emission Cai et al. (2016)
Electricity production from nuclear sources → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Land under cereal production → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Air transport, passengers carried → CO2 emission Stewart et al. (2015)
Livestock production index → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Alternative and nuclear energy → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Electricity production from nuclear sources → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Combustible renewable and waste → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Crop production index → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Food production index → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Oil rents → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Forest rents → CO2 emission EPA (1970)
Cereal production → gross domestic product (GDP) StatsCan (1971)
Agricultural raw materials exports → gross domestic product (GDP) StatsCan (1971)
Cereal yield → gross domestic product (GDP) StatsCan (1971)
Food production index → gross domestic product (GDP) StatsCan (1971)
Land under cereal production → foreign direct investment (FDI) StatsCan (1971)
Agricultural land → food production index FAO (1945)
Arable land → food production index FAO (1945)
Cereal production → food production index FAO (1945)
Cereal yield → food production index FAO (1945)
Permanent cropland → food production index FAO (1945)
Crop production → food production index FAO (1945)
Livestock production → food production index FAO (1945)
Household final consumption expenditure → GDP growth BIS (2011)
Net trade in goods and services → gross domestic product (GDP) BIS (2011)
Exports of goods and services → gross domestic product (GDP) Mehmood (2012) and Ogawa et al. (2016)
External debt stocks → gross domestic product (GDP) Mehmood (2012)
Final consumption expenditure → gross domestic product (GDP) Mehmood (2012)
General government final consumption expenditure → gross domestic product (GDP) Mehmood (2012)
Gross national income → gross domestic product (GDP) Mehmood (2012)
Gross national expenditure → gross domestic product (GDP) Mehmood (2012)
Gross domestic savings → gross domestic product (GDP) Rasmidatta (2011)
Foreign direct investment (FDI) → gross domestic product (GDP) Li (2005)
Gross domestic product (GDP) → oil rents Ebeke and Omgba (2011)
Foreign direct investment (FDI) → oil rents Ebeke and Omgba (2011)
Agriculture → rural population Enyedi and Volgyes (2016)