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Table 1 The collected variables inclusive their respective categories and definitions

From: The use of vanishing spray reduces the extent of rule violations in soccer

Variable Categories and definition
Use of vanishing spray True or false
Local category Left/right near: On the sides of the penalty box
Left/right far: On the sides of the virtually extended penalty box between 16.5 and 35 m distance of the goal line
Central near left/right: Inside the virtually extended penalty box with not more than 26.5 m distance of the goal line (penalty box plus 10 m). Left and right are divided by a virtual line in the middle of the field drawn at right angle to the goal line
Central far: Otherwise, but within 35 m distance to the goal line
Players in wall Numbers of defensive players in the wall
Violation of the minimum distance True: At least one player passes the referees mark with his entire foot
False: otherwise
Massive violation of the min distance True: More than one player commits a violation or a player reduces the distance by more than 1 m
False: otherwise
Punishment for violations Yellow card: A yellow card is awarded
Verbal cautions: The referee corrects the players verbally
None: No punishment
Free kick retaken True or false
Success of shots OnTarget: A goal is scored, the ball hits the goals border or the goalkeeper makes a save
Missed: Ball misses the goal or is blocked by a player outside the wall
Wall: Ball is blocked by the wall
Success of crosses Successful: A player of the offensive team is able to perform a shot or pass with the first touch after the cross
Not successful: Otherwise