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Table 3 Efflux ratio for digoxin in presence and absence of silymarin and quercetin in the Caco-2 cell lines

From: Natural flavonoids silymarin and quercetin improve the brain distribution of co-administered P-gp substrate drugs

Treatment AP-BL transport
10−8 cm/s
BL-AP transport
10−6 cm/s
Efflux ratio (BL-AP/AP-BL)
Digoxin (10 µM) 5.18 1.80 34.77 ± 14.02
Digoxin + Quercetin (50 µM) 5.92 1.23 20.79 ± 0.13
Digoxin + Quercetin (100 µM) 10.4 1.22 11.70 ± 0.21
Digoxin + Silymarin (50 µM) 5.51 1.64 29.69 ± 3.10
Digoxin + Silymarin (100 µM) 6.64 1.42 21.35 ± 0.50