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Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of using different communication materials in teaching CSRA among high school students

From: Integrating climate-smart rice agriculture into secondary-level curriculum: lessons from three high schools in the Philippines

Communication material Advantages Disadvantages
PowerPoint Can contain plenty of information; highly visual, which is good for retention; ready to teach material (useful for busy teachers) Requires equipment and electricity; issues on mastery, especially from the downloaded PowerPoint presentations
Flipchart (on tarpaulin) Handy; can be used anywhere; highly visual; good for retention Can be expensive to produce; contains limited information
Video Handy; audiovisual; good for retention; entertainment value is high; shareable to android phones and tablets, which will work for tech-savvy students Requires electricity and equipment; outdoor setup (using a projector in a wide place during daylight) can diminish quality and retention
School program Effective in driving home the key messages of the advocacy; retention; maximizes student involvement; trains students to become good public speakers; leadership skills of the students can be honed if they are given certain tasks to perform; opportunity for community engagement is high; increase awareness among students who are not directly involved in the campaign; create linkages and collaboration with the local government unit and other partners Requires a committed group of people willing to do many tasks; can be costly; resource-intensive; massive coordination needed
Photos/posters Highly visual; facilitates retention; does not need electricity or equipment; can be referred to anytime the students need information Lifespan variable; might be replaced every so often depending on how they are taken care of; limited information in one poster/photo
Internet Contains massive information; updated materials Internet connectivity is an issue in most rural communities; needs electricity and equipment; cost issues in access; information overload; information credibility is not always guaranteed
Fieldwork Effective in actively engaging the students; increases confidence of the students to talk about rice-related technologies; can be an avenue to promote rice farming as something that is fun and engaging; high retention because of experiential learning Wrong timing can lead to students not enjoying the activity; some costs involved (snacks and personal protective equipment of students and teachers); lack of farm equipment; unavailability of area for fieldwork