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Table 4 Groningen Distress Rating Scale (GDRS)

From: Evaluation of the effects of sedation administered via three different routes on the procedure, child and parent satisfaction during cystometry

GDRS ORAL (n = 31) RECTAL (n = 31) NASAL (n = 31) CONTROL (n = 31) p value
Room entry 1 (1–3) 1 (1–5) 1 (1–4) 1 (1–3) 0.845
Bladder catheterization 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.922
Rectal catheterization 1 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.508
Bladder filling 1 (1–2) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 0.102
Urination 1 (1–2) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–3) 0.868
Room exit 1 (1–2) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–3) 0.499
  1. The values are presented as median (min–max)