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Table 5 Asymmetry of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of trunk muscles in athletes with and without LDD

From: Asymmetrical and smaller size of trunk muscles in combat sports athletes with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration

CSAs of trunk muscles (mm2 kg−1) LDD (69 athletes) Non-LDD (82 athletes) p value
Rectus abdominis
 Left 12.3 ± 3.1 (11.5–13.0) 13.3 ± 2.9 (12.7–14.0) 0.031
 Right 11.8 ± 3.1 (11.8–12.6) 13.2 ± 3.1 (12.5–13.8) 0.011
 p value 0.084 0.457  
Obliques
 Left 44.7 ± 8.7 (42.6–46.8) 47.3 ± 7.5 (45.7–48.9) 0.053
 Right 43.8 ± 8.1 (41.8–45.7) 46.7 ± 7.3 (45.1–48.3) 0.022
 p value 0.040 0.224  
Psoas
 Left 18.3 ± 4.4 (17.3–19.4) 19.4 ± 4.4 (18.4–20.3) 0.155
 Right 18.5 ± 4.1 (17.5–19.5) 19.7 ± 4.0 (18.8–20.6) 0.073
 p value 0.542 0.284  
Quadratus lumborum
 Left 23.3 ± 17.7 (19.1–27.6) 28.3 ± 19.3 (24.0–32.5) 0.105
 Right 21.8 ± 17.2 (17.7–25.9) 27.9 ± 19.0 (23.7–32.1) 0.043
 p value <0.001 0.359  
Erector spinae plus multifidus
 Left 37.9 ± 6.5 (36.4–39.5) 41.0 ± 5.7 (39.8–42.3) 0.002
 Right 38.1 ± 7.2 (36.3–39.8) 41.0 ± 6.0 (39.7–42.4) 0.006
 p value 0.647 0.959  
Total area
 Left 125.9 ± 19.4 (121.2–130.5) 134.2 ± 16.1 (130.6–137.7) 0.005
 Right 124.0 ± 19.1 (119.5–128.6) 133.7 ± 15.6 (130.3–137.1) 0.001
 p value 0.007 0.582  
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD (95 % CI). All relative CSAs are normalized by their body weight
  2. LDD lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration