CSAs of trunk muscles (mm^{2} kg^{−1})

LDD (69 athletes)

NonLDD (82 athletes)

p value


Rectus abdominis

Left

12.3 ± 3.1 (11.5–13.0)

13.3 ± 2.9 (12.7–14.0)

0.031

Right

11.8 ± 3.1 (11.8–12.6)

13.2 ± 3.1 (12.5–13.8)

0.011

p value

0.084

0.457
 
Obliques

Left

44.7 ± 8.7 (42.6–46.8)

47.3 ± 7.5 (45.7–48.9)

0.053

Right

43.8 ± 8.1 (41.8–45.7)

46.7 ± 7.3 (45.1–48.3)

0.022

p value

0.040

0.224
 
Psoas

Left

18.3 ± 4.4 (17.3–19.4)

19.4 ± 4.4 (18.4–20.3)

0.155

Right

18.5 ± 4.1 (17.5–19.5)

19.7 ± 4.0 (18.8–20.6)

0.073

p value

0.542

0.284
 
Quadratus lumborum

Left

23.3 ± 17.7 (19.1–27.6)

28.3 ± 19.3 (24.0–32.5)

0.105

Right

21.8 ± 17.2 (17.7–25.9)

27.9 ± 19.0 (23.7–32.1)

0.043

p value

<0.001

0.359
 
Erector spinae plus multifidus

Left

37.9 ± 6.5 (36.4–39.5)

41.0 ± 5.7 (39.8–42.3)

0.002

Right

38.1 ± 7.2 (36.3–39.8)

41.0 ± 6.0 (39.7–42.4)

0.006

p value

0.647

0.959
 
Total area

Left

125.9 ± 19.4 (121.2–130.5)

134.2 ± 16.1 (130.6–137.7)

0.005

Right

124.0 ± 19.1 (119.5–128.6)

133.7 ± 15.6 (130.3–137.1)

0.001

p value

0.007

0.582
 
 Data are presented as mean ± SD (95 % CI). All relative CSAs are normalized by their body weight

LDD lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration