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Table 4 Relative cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of trunk muscles in athletes with and without LDD

From: Asymmetrical and smaller size of trunk muscles in combat sports athletes with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration

CSAs of trunk muscles (mm2 kg−1) LDD (69 athletes) Non-LDD (82 athletes) p value
Rectus abdominis 24.1 ± 5.8 (22.7–25.5) 26.6 ± 5.8 (25.3–27.8) 0.011
Obliques 88.6 ± 16.4 (84.6–92.5) 94.3 ± 14.3 (91.1–97.4) 0.024
Psoas 36.8 ± 8.4 (34.8–38.8) 39.2 ± 8.2 (37.4–41.0) 0.086
Quadratus lumborum 24.5 ± 4.7 (23.4–25.7) 26.7 ± 4.7 (25.6–27.7) 0.006
Erector spinae plus multifidus 76.0 ± 13.4 (72.8–79.3) 82.6 ± 11.6 (80.0–85.1) 0.002
Total area 250.1 ± 38.1 (240.9–259.2) 269.2 ± 32.0 (262.2–276.3) 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD (95 % CI). All relative CSAs are normalized by their body weight
  2. LDD lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration