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Table 3 Absolute cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of trunk muscles in athletes with and without LDD

From: Asymmetrical and smaller size of trunk muscles in combat sports athletes with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration

CSAs of trunk muscles (mm2) LDD (69 athletes) Non-LDD (82 athletes) p value
Rectus abdominis 19.6 ± 4.1 (18.6–20.6) 19.1 ± 4.1 (18.2–20.0) 0.448
Obliques 72.3 ± 13.4 (69.1–75.5) 67.8 ± 8.6 (65.9–69.7) 0.014
Psoas 30.0 ± 5.8 (28.6–31.4) 28.2 ± 6.1 (26.9–29.6) 0.082
Quadratus lumborum 20.2 ± 4.0 (19.2–21.1) 19.4 ± 4.1 (18.5–20.3) 0.224
Erector spinae plus multifidus 62.0 ± 8.8 (59.9–64.2) 59.6 ± 8.7 (57.7–61.5) 0.094
Total area 204.1 ± 23.9 (198.3–209.8) 194.1 ± 22.6 (189.2–199.1) 0.010
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD (95 % CI)
  2. LDD lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration