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Table 3 Applied average Finnish health state costs (year 2014 values) and quality of life values

From: Cost–effectiveness of apixaban and warfarin in the prevention of thromboembolic complications among atrial fibrillation patients

Model state Cost, € EQ-5D-3L score (n = 5690)
Atrial fibrillation   0.743a
 Monitoring visit (warfarin only) 38.39b  
 Routine care, GP visit 116.82c  
Ischemic stroke
 Mild   −0.087
  Acute Care, per episode 4429.23  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 0  
 Moderate   −0.198
  Acute Care, per episode 7526.19  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 943.31  
 Severe   −0.644
  Acute Care, per episode 7532.07  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 4293.22  
 Fatal 5338.33  
Haemorrhagic stroke
 Mild   −0.071
  Acute Care, per episode 2628.91  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 2429.02  
 Moderate   −0.352
  Acute Care, per episode 9218.05  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 2128.67  
 Severe   −0.578
  Acute Care, per episode 9399.58  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 3722.89  
 Fatal 5564.97  
Systemic embolism   −0.084
  Acute Care, per episode 2072.39  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 104.08  
Other intracranial bleeds, per episode 4257.04 −0.168d
Other major bleeds −0.168e  
GI bleeds, per episode 3448.80  
Non-GI bleeds, per episode 3448.80  
Clinically relevant non-major bleeds 2006.51 −0.0582f
Myocardial infarction   −0.005
  Acute Care, per episode 5316.31  
  Long-term maintenance, per month 525.00  
  1. aIn the regression model the constant term was 1.068, the disutility associated with AF was −0.045, and the decrease in QoL per year of age was −0.004. As a result, the QoL in AF state equals 0.743 (=1.068 − 0.004 × 70 − 0.045, where 70 is the average age of patients)
  2. bHallinen et al. (2006, 2012a, b)
  3. cGP-visit at primary health care (Kapiainen et al. 2014)
  4. dDisutility applied for 6 weeks
  5. eAssumed to be equal to other intracranial bleeds. Disutility applied for 14 days
  6. fSullivan et al. (2011). Disutility applied for 2 days