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Table 3 Results of meta-analysis predicting doping intentions, susceptibility and behaviour

From: Predictors of doping intentions, susceptibility, and behaviour of elite athletes: a meta-analytic review

Outcome Predictor k n Effect size 95 % CI lb 95 % CI ub
Doping intentions Situational temptationsc 4 2535 0.72a 0.69 0.75
  Attitudes 4 2535 0.60a 0.56 0.63
  Subjective normsc 4 2535 0.50a 0.45 0.55
  Descriptive norms 1 650 0.17a 0.09 0.24
  PBC 3 1885 0.27a 0.20 0.33
  Past behaviour 1 1075 0.29a 0.23 0.34
  Mastery avoidance 1 750 0.09a 0.02 0.16
  Anticipated regret 1 650 −0.48a −0.54 −0.42
Doping susceptibility Attitudes 4 1905 0.47a 0.32 0.59
  Subjective normsc 2 1038 0.48a 0.39 0.57
  Current behaviour 1 729 0.54a 0.48 0.58
  User favourability 1 729 0.50a 0.44 0.55
  User similarity 1 729 0.49a 0.43 0.54
  Competition level 1 729 −0.15a −0.22 −0.08
  Mastery approach/deception 1 309 0.29a 0.18 0.39
  Descriptive norms 1 309 0.18a 0.07 0.29
  MDE 1 224 0.25a 0.12 0.37
  Controlling coach climatec 1 224 0.20a 0.07 0.32
Doping behaviour Attitudes 3 2,076 0.30a 0.16 0.42
  Sportspersonship 1 1201 −0.23a −0.28 −0.18
  SDT (only extrinsic)c 1 1201 0.11a 0.05 0.17
  Situational temptation (availability)c 1 974 17.1b 8.4 34.9
  Descriptive norms 1 974 3.0b 2.0 4.7
  Age (≤18 years) 1 757 4.27b n.a. n.a.
  Gender (male) 1 757 1.65b n.a. n.a.
  Knowledge (better) 1 757 1.19b n.a. n.a.
  Doping beliefs 1 199 0.40a 0.28 0.51
  Current behaviour 1 72 0.26a 0.03 0.47
  1. k: number of studies, n: total sample, 95 % CI lb: 95 % confidence interval lower bound, 95 % CI ub: 95 % confidence interval upper bound
  2. PBC perceived behavioural control, MDE moral disengagement, SDT self-determination theory, n.a. not applicable
  3. aPearson’s correlation r
  4. bOdds ratio
  5. cRepresents facets of sporting culture based on its operationalization